Path 1 - Female Repro 5

drraythe's version from 2016-05-03 11:26


Mammary immunity

Question Answer
What are the non-immune-mediated (innate immunity) defense mechanisms of the mammary gland?(4)Teat End Sphincter
Teat Canal Lining
Flushing during milking/nursing
Soluble factors (Lactoperoxidase, Lactoferrin, Complement)
Teat end sphincter is a _ barrier?Mechanical
*Protective features of the Teat canal?1) Keratin lining
2) Regular sloughing
3) Bactericidal esterified & non-esterified fatty acids w/in lipids overlying keratin (myristic acid, palmitoleic acid & linoleic acid)
4) Cationic proteins w/in keratin lining teat canal (bacteriostatic & bactericidal)
How does the act of Milking/nursing help protect the mammary gland from infxn?Serves to flush the gland & teat canal, reducing bacterial numbers
What does Lysozyme do?Cleaves peptidoglycan
What are the soluble factors that protect the mammary gland (MG)?Lactoferrin
Complement Cascade
What is Lactoferrin? What’s it do?It’s a bacteriostatic/bactericical which binds Iron/disrupts cell wall
What does Lactoperoxidase produce? How is it produced (by mammary tissue) Thiocyanate (from green feeds) + hydrogen peroxide produces the free radical hypothiocyanite which damages bacterial membrane
How does the Complement Cascade protect the mammary gland?Attach to bacterial membranes & burns/pokes holes in the membrane. Bacteria lyze
What are the immune-mediated (acquired immunity) defense mechanisms of the mammary gland?(2)Cell mediated (CMI) & Humoral (HI)
CMI: What are the components of cell mediated immunity of the mammary gland?Cells in milk & attached to teat canal
CMI: What Cells are normally in milk & attached to teat canal?1) Phagocytic cells w/in mammary secretions
2) Lymphocytes, plasma cells, neutrophils are in Lamina Propria of teat canal & Rosette of Furstenberg
*CMI: How many Phagocytes hang out in milk? What is the most predominate type?50,000 to 200,000 phagocytes/ml of milk in normal uninfected mammary gland
Most are Macrophages
CMI: What happens to the population of phagocytes during infxn?# of Neutrophils quickly inc following infxns (Leukocytosis). Over 500,000/ml in subclinical infxns & over 1,000,000/ml in clinical mastitis
CMI: Why are Neutrophils important in the mammary gland?Neutrophils play major role in clearing invading bacteria via phagocytosis following opsonization
*CMI: What is the difference btwn Neutrophils in serum & in milk? How? Why?Less efficient in milk than in serum
Impaired chemotaxis

How: Decreased superoxide anion production
Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytoxicity
Decreased phagocytosis
Why?: Proteins in the milk inhibit those actions
HI: What are the components of Humoral immunity of the mammary gland?Antibodies
HI: Are [antibody] ↑ or ↓ in the mammary gland vs. serum?Lower
HI: What is the approx. [antibodies] in normal milk?~1 mg/ml
HI: What is the approx. [antibodies] in mastitis milk?~50 mg/ml
*HI: IgA & IgM are made where & what do they do?Produced locally!
IgM opsonizes
IgA prevents bacterial adhesion to mammary epithelium
HI: IgG-1 & IgG-2 are made where & what do they do?IgG-1 is serum derived (Its imported!) & is the major antibody found in milk
IgG-2 is derived both from serum & from mammary tissue
Both opsonize!
HI: Which Antibodies opsonize?IgG & IgM


Question Answer
What are the 2 groups of bacteria pathogens that cz Bovine Mastitis?1) Contagious
2) Environmental
What is the main feature of the Contagious group?Bacteria are xferred from infected mammary gland into healthy mammary gland at milking (bacteria on milking equipment vectors the bacteria)
What is the main feature of the Environmental group?Bacteria from the environment invade & contaminate the mammary gland
***Name the pathogens in the Contagious groupStrep. agalactiae
Strep. dysagalactiae
Staph. aureus
Mycoplasma spp. (usually bovis)
*Strep. agalactiae: Route of infection? Tissue affected? What seen?Teat! Primary mammary gland tissue!
Fibrosis/granulation tissue

Stagnation of milk
Progressive premature involution
Inc. neutrophils & macrophages
Strep. agalactiae: Pathogenicity? Acute/Chronic characteristics?Low pathogenicity
Acute: Hyperemia/edema, strands & flecks in milk, pus in more severe cases
Chronic: Czd by waves of multiplication/incomplete clearance of infxn, Obstructed area (may resemble abcesses), extensive fibrosis, thickened ducts & sinuses (mammaries become hard/stiff)
Strep. agalactiae: Is 1 or more quarter’s usually infected?Usually >1, often all 4 (agalactiae is contagious, likes get all in all the titties it can find)
*~Strep. dysagalactia in comparison w/ Strep. agalactiae infxnDys is less severe, lower in prevalence
Low grade mastitis with flakes & clots in forstripping = subclinical infxn
Swollen, warm udder/quarters = clinical mastitis
Staph. aureus: Virulence depends on?The virulence factors possessed by that specific isolate of staph.
Staph. aureus: What are the virulence factors that allow mastitis infxns? (6)1) Alpha toxin – vasoconstriction, leukocidal, red cell lysis
2) Protein A – antiphagocytic, complement inactivation
3) Lipoteichoic acid
4) Panton-Valentine leukocidin (toxic to neutrophils)
5) Staphyloxanthin – bacterial antioxidant
6) Extracellular enzymes – catalase, coagulase, staphylokinase, protease, nuclease, lipase, hyalurondiase
What kind of infxns do Staph. aureus: Cz?Various. Depending on the virulence factors could range from low grade to gangrenous!!
Mycoplasma features? Acute/Chronic?Can occur in clean herds where all other mastitis has been controlled/removed. Very hard to get rid of!
Czs abscesses in the parenchyma
Acute: purulent exudate
Chronic: more mononuclear inflammatory cells & fibrosis of gland parenchyma
(severe case)
Name the pathogens in the Environmental groupColiform mastitis – Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterobacter aerogenes & Citrobacter sp.
Streptococcus uberis
Coagulase(-) staphylococci (S. xyloris, S.warneri, S.simulans)
Trueperella pyogenes – summer mastitis, dry cow mastitis
Environmental group pathogens are mostly Gram _ bacteria?Negative
Environmental mastitis: How do environmental contaminants invade the mammary gland?Access teats via poor sanitation & invade teat end
Coliform mastitis: After initial infxn bacterial numbers rise rapidly czing?Massive influx of neutrophils which kill & phagocytize bacteria → releasing large amounts of endotoxin (LPS)
*Coliform mastitis: What is the consequences of the massive endotoxin release?Endotoxin acts on vasculature → Initial lesions include hyperemia, hemorrhage and edema → Non-lactating mammary gland responds much less to endotoxin than lactating gland → Can progress to gangrenous mastitis & systematic inflammation → endotoxic shock → Death
Coliform mastitis: What does this look like grossly?
Environmental mastitis: Strep. uberis is ubiquitous in _ operations bc of?Dairy. bc of inc incidence of teat injuries & chapped teats which inc bacterial colonization
Environmental mastitis: Strep. uberis infxn can happen during?Early lactation or late in the dry period
Environmental mastitis: Coagulase(-) Staph. What is unique about these bact.?They are normal flora of the udder & teat skin. Opportunistic infxns due to broken skin (teat injury/chapp); often cz sub-clinical mastitis & can occur anytime
*Environmental mastitis: Trueperella pyogenes infxn aka? aka?Summer Mastitis
Dry Cow Mastitis
*Environmental mastitis: Trueperella pyogenes CS?Purulent inflammation = Trueperella 95% of the time!
Environmental mastitis: Whats unique about Trueperella pyogenes?It can affect udders that are:
Environmental mastitis: Trueperella pyogenes can cz _ _ in severe cases & _ in milder/chronic casesDiffuse necrosis; fibrosis
Environmental mastitis: What parts of the mammary gets damaged in Trueperella pyogenes infxns?Large & small lactiferous ducts → abscesses
Mastitis in Small Ruminants: Clinical case of mastitis are _ in sheep & goatsRare (~5%)
Mastitis in Small Ruminants: Subclinical cases of mastitis happen btwn _ & 30% of the time5-30%
Mastitis in Small Ruminants: Bacteria commonly infecting ewe/goat mammaries?Ewes - Mycoplasma agalactiae & Mannheimia haemolytica
Goats - Mycoplasma agalactiae & Mycoplasma mycoides sub mycoides
Type of bacteria commonly infecting Sow mammaries?Coliforms
Bacteria commonly infecting bitch & queenStrep. & Staph. spp., usually in lactating bitches
How common is bitch/queen mastitis?Uncommon
Environmental mastitis: What is the most common bacteria isolated in cases of subclinical mastitis in sheep & goats?Coagulase(-) staphylococci:
S. epidermidis
S. caprae
S. simulans
What is blue bag?Ischemic necrosis (clinical mastitis)


Question Answer
Mammary Fibroadenomatous Hyperplasia is? Occurs in? Tx?Mammary hyperplasia, fibroadenoma
Cats, rarely in bitches → young intact females
Spontaneous regression
Mammary Lobular Hyperplasia occurs in?Bitch, rarely in cats → Intact, lactating or non-lactating → Most commonly in caudal 2 glands
Mammary Adenomas/Carcinomas occurs in? Prognosis?Primarily dogs, rare in other species
Carcinomas are behaviorally benign at least 80% in dogs → Good
Carcinomas are behaviorally malignant at least 90% of the time in cats → Poor