Path 1 - Female Repro 4

drraythe's version from 2016-05-02 01:03

Oviducts (salpinx)

Question Answer
How does freemartinism cz abnormalities of oviduct development?Remember that the freemartin has cells shared w/ her brother thru the placenta → there are sertoli cells inside her ovary, which produce MIS (Mullerian inhibitory substance) which suppress her Mullerian ducts → the oviducts (& uterus/cervix/anterior vagina) do not develop properly
Conditions where there are abnormalities of oviduct development? (3)Freemartinism
Ovarian Hypoplasia
Segmental Hypoplasia/Aplasia (sows)
How does Ovarian Hypoplasia cz abnormal oviduct development?Ovarian Hypoplasia czs oviducts to remain juvenile
Segmental Hypoplasia or agenesis of the oviduct usually happens in who & can cz what problem?SOWS, usually leads to Hydrosalpinx (Segmental of the Oviduct in SOws)
***What is Salpingitis? Usual cause? Possible sequelae?Inflammation of the oviduct (aka the salpinx)
Usually from uterine infxns (ascending) Can be acute or chronic, Can lead to infertility (inflamm. → blockage → infertility)
What is Pyosalpinx? When does this usually occur?Pus w/in oviduct backs up behind obstruction. Uncommon. Follows acute salpingitis
What is Hydrosalpinx? When does this usually occur?Fluid w/in oviduct backs up behind obstruction. Uncommon. Follows chronic salpingitis (or 2° to hypoplasia of oviduct)
Perisalpingeal adhesions: Where do these adhesions usually occur & what is it usually 2° to?Adhesions btwn oviducts & ovary, uterus, bursa 2° to peritonitis, salpingitis

Cervix/ Vulva/ Vagina

Question Answer
Abnormalities of cervix development? (5)(1) HypOplasia/hypERplasia
(2) Double cervix
(3) Aplasia of rugae or ↑ number of rugae
(4) Tortuosity/Dilation of canal
(5) Diverticula
Cervicitis is usually 2° to?Endometritis or Vaginitis
If there is neoplasia of the cervix, it’s prolly going to be?SCC (Herford & Charlois usually)
Imperforate hymen → Where? Why? Result?Is due to a non-patent connection of Mullerian duct (cranial vagina) with urogenital sinus (caudal vagina) (Causes problems like a mucometra, bc secretions cannot escape)
Persistent Mesonephric (Wolffian) ducts (Gartner's ducts) (need a gardener to take care of the canal if you flower) → Where? What is happening & What triggers it?Normally Mesonephric ducts do not open into the vagina. Rarely the Mesonephric ducts persist & become cystic, inflamed or enlarged. They form single/multiple cysts or tortuous tube(s) in the lateral floor of the vagina b/t the cervix & urethral opening. Causes of cyst formation include inflammation/infxn of the duct lining or gland & hyperestrogenism → vaginal/vulvular edema
**Which virus can cz Vaginitis, Vulvitis & Vulvovaginitis?IPV (Infectious Pustular Vulvovaginitis) = Bovine herpes virus-1 (BHV-1) (Usually nonspecific, catarrhal inflammation)
Cystic Bartholin’s gland → What is happening?(Bartholin's are glands which open up near the opening of the vagina) These glands can become cystic when its openings into the lateral wall of the vaginal vestibule become obstructed (edema, inflammation or scar tissue)
Neoplasia of Vagina & Vulva → Leiomyomas (fibroids) arise from where?Smooth muscle of uterus, vagina & cervix
Transmissible Venereal Tumors (TVTs) arise from where/how? Tx?Actually is "transplanted" from 1 sexually active dog to another during intercourse. The cells have 59 chromosomes (Normal is 78). Usually the tumor will spontaneously regress Histologically have characteristic vaculation in macrophages
Melanomas usually occur on who, where?Perineum of mares (esp. grey mares)
List 5 neoplasms which can occur on the vagina/vulva(1) Leiomyoma (fibroid)
(2) TVT
(3) Fibropapilloma (warts)
(4) SCC
(5) Melanoma (perineum of mares)
When/who do you usually see SCC? How does it usually behave?Light skinned cows like Herford & Charlois. Usually locally very aggressive, but if it metastasizes, it usually stays in the LNs of the pelvis
Which breeds is vaginal prolapse usually seen in?Hereford, Shorthorn & Brahma & Brahma influenced breeds (sheep & bitches too) (it's BS to have a vaginal prolapse)
Equine Coital Exanthema (ECE) is caused by? How is it transmitted? Signs of infxn/past infxn?Equine ALPHAHERPES Virus-3 (EAV-3)!!!! Xmitted via mating. Painful papules (w/in 2-10 days of infxn) → pustules → vesicles → ulcers. Depigmented spots remain at site of initial lesion following healing
Fibropapilloma usually in who caused by what?Cattle → BPV 1 (One word = BPV-1!!)
Bovine Herpes Virus-1 (BHV-1)Infectious Pustular Vulvovaginitis (IPV)
~Equine ALPHAHERPES Virus-3 (EAV-3)Equine Coital Exanthema (ECE)
Equine Coital Exanthema (ECE)~Equine ALPHAHERPES Virus-3 (EAV-3) (ECE has 3 words in it = herpesvirus-3)
You find that your new heifer's cranial vagina & caudal vagina do not not connect, what is this condition calledImperforate hymen
Herford & Charlois breed are prone to what kind of tumors?SCC
*TVT cells have _ chromosomes?TVT has 59
Normal is 78
If SCC metatisizes it will stay where?Stays in the lymphnodes of the pelvis (Herfords & Charlois)