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Path 1 - Female Repro 3

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pufexaxe's version from 2016-11-07 00:39

Uterus

Question Answer
Segmental aplasia of the uterus is aka?White Heifer Dz
Segmental aplasia of the uterus happens bc? It czs?Aplasia of the UTERUS (aka White Heifer Dz) happens bc of a Genetic defect of White Shorthorn cattle (Recessive gene → white coat color (roan locus; mast cell growth factor gene) It causes defects in Mullerian duct development resulting in various manifestations
Uterus Unicornis?Aplasia of 1 uterine horn (defect czd by agenesis of 1 Mullerian duct during embryonic development)
*Torsion of the uterus occurs when? Twists usually occur where?Need weight w/in uterus = during Pregnancy, pyometra, hydrometra, mucometra
Twists at ovaries & cervix on the Transverse axis
Uterine torsion: explain how this occurs/looks in CATTLE vs in CATS/DOGSIn cattle, usually BOTH horns of the uterus are involved in the torsion due to their IC (intercorneal) ligament btwn the 2 horns
CATS/DOG do NOT have an IC ligament so usually only 1 horn of the uterus is in torsion
Uterine Prolapse is common in who & usually happens bc?Common in Ruminants. Often follows dystocia, retained placenta, hypocalcemia (Results in edema, hemorrhage, ischemia, necrosis, infxn of uterus. The exteriorized uterus is exposed to a variety of traumas & the mucosa begins to dry out)
*Caruncles vs Cotyledons?Caruncles = On uterus (mom drives the CAR)
Cotyledons = On placenta (baby lays in the COT)
*How can you prevent a uterine prolapse from re-occurring once you have fixed it?(SEW IT BACK IN) Buhner stitch → Heavy suture or umbilical tape → go around edge of vulva → Thread string through → Tie vulva mostly shut → Then a while later cut it out (its kinda like a cinch-purse string)

or use corset/shoestring stitch
Rupture of the uterus is usually associated w/? Occurs Where?Associated w/:
Pregnancy/parturition
Obstetrical manipulations
Prolonged dystocia
Uterine torsion
- Most commonly in the uterine body adjacent to the pelvic brim Peritonitis will follow uterine rupture
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Uterine Ick 1

Question Answer
Uterine defense against Infxns: 3 major things (basics) help the uterus stay resistant to infxns?(1) Strong local immunity
(2) Endometrial leukocytosis during estrus
(3) Hormonal factors
Describe the strong local immunity which is in the uterusIgA & IgG in uterine secretions
Changes in endometrial WBC population during estrus?Leukocytosis
How does estrogen/progesterone affect the uterus's defense against infxns?ESTROGEN: Estrogenic uterus is RESISTANT to infxns (estrus promotes leukocytosis of the endometrium)
PROGESTERONE: Progesteronal uterus is susceptible
Postpartum uterus MORE or LESS likely to be infected? Explain?More likely
Infxns are common but self-limiting & often leads to delayed involution
**Endometritis is inflammation of the?Endometrium (mind....BLOWN)
Metritis is inflammation of?Uterine wall
Perimetritis is inflammation of?Uterine serosa (pERri, sERosa)
*Parametritis is inflammation of?Suspensory ligament (parachuting = suspending you in air)
Pyometra is?Pus w/in uterine lumen
Define Uterine abscessLocalized area of suppurative inflammation
Mucometra is?Lumen of the uterus filled w/ mucous secretions
**Endometritis: Usually mild, what situations can cz a severe inflammation?POSTPARTUM
Open cervix & left over stuff in uterus (lochia) → bacterial invasion & proliferation
In dirty mares
(Uterus = enlarged, loses mm tone (delayed involution) & contains brown-gray, foul smelling mucoid exudate, Inflammation (ulceration & suppuration) of the endometrium & necrotic placental tissue are often present. Maybe uterine discharge (depends on mm tone) & patency/non-patency of cervix)
What's a dirty mare/ wind sucker mare?Older mares who have usually had multiple foals → floor of vagina is below lower lip of vulva & the top of the vulva sags inward becoming more horizontal = Poor conformation → sucking of air & collection of feces/contaminants & urine pools in vagina → Vaginitis → Cervicitis & Endometritis (uterine infxns)
Caslick’s Procedure?Sew the vulva shut except for a small part at the bottom for the mare to urinate → helps prevent uterine/vaginal infxns resulting from dirty/windsucking mares (can't lick the pussy if the vulva’s sewn shut)
Post Coital Endometritis (persistent mating-induced EM) happens in whom? What exactly is happening?Occurs in MARES. Normal mating induces ‘some’ inflammation in uterus. Usually resolves w/o Tx
BUT 15% of mares still have fluid in the uterus 24 hours after mating. If inflammation is not cleared before fertilized egg reaches the uterus (4 to 6 days) the embryo is unlikely to implant
Factors that affect removal of inflammatory fluid from uterus → post-coital Endometritis? (3)(1) Poor conformation → ↑ likelihood of infxn
(2) Uterine dmg → poor lymphatic fxn = fluid remains
(3) Abnormalities of uterine contractility
How long is considered a "prolonged" amount of time to have inflammatory fluid in the uterus? How long must it remain to prevent implantation?>24-36 hrs is considered prolonged
4-6 d = fertilized egg reaches uterus = point of no-return
What aids fluid clearance after mating?Uterine contractions & Lymphatic drainage
Appearances of EndometritisLots of teeny-tiny inflamed bumps, red, irritated
(larger pebble-looking nodules are caruncles)
Cz of Endometrial Atrophy?Inadequate hormonal stim of endometrium via ovarian/pituitary problem, seasonal anestrus etc
Czs of hypERplasia of the endometrium?Overstim of endometrium via ↑ estrogens (ovarian tumors, estrogenic pastures, hormone Inj)
&/or ↑ progesterones (ovarian tumors, pseudopregnancy, hormone Inj)
Czs of ↑ levels of estrogen?Ovarian tumors (Granulosa Cell Tumor)
Estrogenic pastures (clover = Phytoestrogens & Isoflavones)
Hormone Injxn
Czs of ↑ levels of progesterone?Ovarian tumors (Granulosa Cell Tumor)
Pseudopregnancy
Hormone Injxn
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Uterine Ick 2

Question Answer
***Large animals usually have ↑ _ → endometrial hypERplasia & small animals usually have ↑ _Large = Estrogen (irregular endometrial growth)
Small = Progesterone
Czs of hyperestrogenism in EWEs?Estrogenic pastures (phytoestrogens/isoflavones)
Czs of Hyperestrogenism in a COW? (3)Cystic Follicles
Granulosa Cell Tumor
Estrogenic pastures
**Main cz of hyperestrogenism in a SOW?Zearalenone (estrogenic mycotoxin)
Cz of Hyperestrogenism in DOGs? (3)Retained CL
Pseudopregnancy
Iatrogenic (hormone inj)
Cz of Hyperestrogenism in a CAT?Retained CL
Hyperestrogenism → Czs what in the uterus? Frequency of infxn?Not as common in small animals (a uterus influenced by estrogen is resistant to infxn)
Hyperestrogenism czs chronic stim of endometrium w/ proliferation of glandular epithelium → swelling/edema of the vulva → 2° infxns
Cystic Endometrial Hyperplasia happens after?Prolonged stim of the endometrium by hormones estrogen or progesterone (takes a while for all those cysts to form)
Estrogenic Mycotoxin: Usually grow on? Who is affected? (3)Gibberella ear rot (Corn)
Fusarium head scab
Zearalenone (Wheat)
Swine
Cystic Endometrial Hyperplasia in SMALL animals: Pathophysiology of cysts in the endometrium?Endometrium primed w/ estrogen induces the production of progesterone receptors → Hyperprogesteronism → persistent CL → hyperplasia of lining of uterus → formation of cysts
Common lesions 2° to Cystic Endometrial Hyperplasia in small animals? Why?CEH usually bc of too much progesterone → Progesterone czs the endometrium to be more susceptible to infxnsEndometritis & pyometra
Common czs of Pyometra? What happens? Which agent(s) are usually to blame?↑ levels of progesterone → reduce uterine immune defenses → close off the cervix
Then suppurative inflammation of the uterus → accumulation of pus w/in uterine lumen
E. coli is often isolated, but there are many others
How does pyometra affect the CBC? CS? Other organ system affected & problems it czs?Marked leukocytosis (due to infxn)
Polydipsia/Polyuria
Toxemia/Shock

Glomerulonephritis bc of immune complex deposition w/ 2° dmg to the glomerular tufts
What is Adenomyosis? Usually happens when?Ectopic Endometrial glands in the myometrium
Usually occurs during Cystic Endometrial Hyperplasia
What are Endometrial polyps?Pedunculated mass composed of hyperplasic endometrial glands & stroma (dogs & cats)
What is Endometriosis? How does this often present? Who’s often affected?Small explants of endometrium become implanted in peritoneal cavity. Lesions wax & wane w/ stages of menstrual cycle
Primates are often affected
Subinvolution of Placental Sites (SIPS): What happens, why & to whom?Placental sites do not involute as quickly as they should after whelping. Lochial discharge (vaginal discharge after giving birth, including blood, mucus & uterine tissue) its prolonged bc of Retention of placental trophoblasts usually in the Bitch
***Subinvolution of Placental Sites (SIPS): How long is NORMAL involution? How long is NORMAL lochial discharge & how long does it last in SIPS?NORMAL involution is usually a 12-15 WEEK process, but in SIPS involution will persist
NORMAL lochial discharge can be as long as 6 WEEKS under normal conditions, but in SIPS it can be as long as 8-16 WEEKS.
What does SIPS (Subinvolution of Placental Sites) look like on necropsy?Grossly: the retained placental sites appear as ring-like uterine enlargements, 1.5-3x the diameter of the uninvolved portions of the endometrium. Retained sites are roughened & covered w/ a thick, reddish-brown pseudomembrane containing fibrin, cellular debris & blood
Whats happening in Pseudopregnancy physiologically/pathologically? Who is prone? Which hormones?NORMALLY dogs. Have a prolonged luteal phase = Physiologic pseudopregnancy. Toy breeds especially (pseudo toys = we all know you can't play w/ those toys). Any dog, can have an exaggerated prolongation of the luteal phase & pseudopregnancy can result. The complete pathophysiology is unknown but prolactin &/or prolactin receptors are believed to play a role, bc the dogs will either have an ↑ [Prolactin] or an ↑ sensitivity to prolactin. In addition, ↑ progesterone levels play a permissive role in the development of pseudopregnancy. If puppies are in the vicinity of the bitch w/ pseudopregnancy there can be mammary development, lactation & maternal behavior
What are some CS of pseudopregnancy?Mammary development
Lactation
Maternal behavior such as “nesting”, aggressive protection &/or mothering of stuffed animals, etc
Gross lesions of pseudopregnancy? How long does it usually last?Gross lesions may include the development of placental sites in the uterus & mucometra in the absence of fetuses. Usually resolves on its own in 2 to 3 weeks & Tx is not necessary. A few cases are prolonged & Tx may be necessary
Uterine Leiomyoma/Leiomyosarcoma: Tumor arises from? Who’s most affected?Tumor arises from smooth muscle of wall, most commonly in the bitch (Leia the bitch was a smooth talker)
Uterine Adenocarcinoma: Tumor arise from? Who’s most affected?Arises from endometrium, rabbit
Uterine Lymphosarcoma: Tumor arises from? Who is most affected?Lymphoid tissue of the uterus, Cow
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EM Biopsy

Question Answer
Endometrial Biopsy in Mare: Why?Used to evaluate uterine morphology; Determine stage of the cycle she’s in (anestrus, proestrus, estrus, metestrus, diestrus) or look for pathological changes
What part of the endometrial biopsy is looked at in the mare to determine cycle stage?Epithelial
Glandular
Stromal Changes
Pathological conditions that an endometrial biopsy of the mare can detect?Inflammation
Atrophy
Cystic glands
Fibrosis
Lymphatic lacunae
Observing pathological changes in the endometrium of mares looks at what features? In order to determine?Looks at incidence & extensiveness of lesions to estimate chance of successful pregnancy
4 categories of endometrial biopsy in mares?I
IIA
IIB
III
Cat I EM biopsy: Level of lesions & expected foal rate?No lesions (or inflammation or fibrosis; slight & sparsely scattered) 80-90%
**Cat IIA EM biopsy: Level of lesions & expected foal rate?Mild lesions (scattered inflammation*, mild fibrosis*, endometrial atrophy* in late breeding) 50-80%
**Cat IIB EM biopsy: Level of lesions & expected foal rate?Moderate lesions (scattered inflammation*, moderate fibrosis*) 10-50%
Cat III EM biopsy: Level of lesions & expected foal rate?Severe lesions (irreversible changes including fibrosis* & inflammation*) 0-10% (3 strikes you're out)
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