Path 1 - Female Repro 2

drraythe's version from 2016-05-03 11:02

Ovarian Pathology

Part I: Hermies, Cysts & friends

Question Answer
T/F? Ovarian abnormalities are common in intersex conditionsTRUE
Agenesis of the ovary (it never grew): who is this usually seen in? Affect on rest of the tract?Rare, but most often seen in Ruminants, Dogs, & Swine. If both ovaries are absent, the genital tract will be juvenile. (Really Dumb Swine can’t even grow an ovary)
Ovarian hypOplasia usually occurs in? Cz?Cattle
Cz is unknown but it can sometimes be genetic, like in Swedish Highland cattle where it is an autosomal recessive condition
Ovary is small & flattened (a cow ovary is small (hypo) for such a large beast)
Ovarian duplication: What usually happens & what does it look like?Rare, but probably happens when there is a split in ovarian tissue during embryonic development resulting in 2 OVARIES ON 1 SIDE
What on earth are Spay fragments (Ovarian Remnant Syndrome)? How do you avoid this problem?If you perform a spay but leave behind any ovarian tissue on accident, animal can continue to have cycles/heats. Fragments can be difficult to find & histopathology is usually required to conclusively identify the remnant ovarian tissue in the mesenteric fat
To avoid: Do your job right the first time!!
Czs of ovarian atrophy?↓ hormonal stimulation
Partial loss of blood flow
Starvation/chronic illness/debilitation
(if theyre sick/thin, they dont need a baby, body shuts the ovaries down & they appear smooth)
Intrafollicular hemorrhage: During normal ovulation, a small amount of hemorrhage is common in the ovary adjacent of ovulated follicles. In which animal are these more severe? What can result?Mares
Hemorrhage can be severe enough to result in exsanguination into the peritoneal cavity (hemoperitoneum)
(a normal process killing horses...big surprise!)
What used to be the iatrogenic cz for intrafollicular hemorrhage & how is it avoided now?Manual enucleation of the CL which could lead to 2° ovarian hemorrhage
Now we just use Prostaglandins
Acute (PYOGENIC) Oophoritis (ovaritis): Who does this occur in most of the time? Cz?Usually observed in cattle (RARE in cats/dogs)
Usually 2° to an ascending infection from the uterus (pyogenic). (VIRAL oohoritis: Also can be czd experimentally in cow w/ IBR virus (bovine herpesvirus-1) ) (a CUTE ovary in the cow can mean pus for dinner)
Chronic (GRANULOMATOUS) oophoritis (ovaritis): What 3 agents cz this?BVD virus
M. bovis
B. suis
Adhesions can lead to?Infertility
**Paraovarian (periovarian) cysts: What czs them? What problems can these cz?Develop from remnants of the embryonic Paramesonephric (Mullerian) or Mesonephric (Wolffian) tubules/ducts
Rarely cz problems unless large or in the wrong location (incidental)
Name the 3 kinds of Intraovarian cysts?- Cystic reteovarii
- Epithelial inclusion cyst
- Cystic Graafian Follicle (Follicular Cysts)
Cystic reteovarii: Develops from? Where? Who does this affect?Reteovarii are tubules formed from Mesonephric (Wolffian-male) duct remnants in the medulla of the ovary
Tubules persist in cats, dogs & cows
Tubules become cystic & if large enough can lead to 2° ovarian dysfxn or be confused w/ cystic follicles (long notes also said it tends to be in the hilus, aka ‘the dented in area’ of the ovary) (Cat & dog have a medusa in their medulla)
Epithelial Inclusion Cyst: What situation makes this cyst form?Normal surface epithelium of ovary becomes entrapped in ovarian stroma at ovulation. Cyst can form from trapped epithelium as it continues to produce fluid. Most common in mares
Usually around the ovarian fossa (hilus)
Epithelial Inclusion Cyst: Who is prone to form them?Most common intraovarian cyst in the MARE. w/ enough size/number they may block ovulation → infertility (what? a normal physiological process like ovulating czing problems in a horse?)
Cystic Ovarian Dz in domestic animals: Anovulatory follicular cyst is aka?Cystic Graafian Follicle
Cystic Ovarian Dz of Cattle: Which cows, when & why does this occur?Usually occurs in dairy cattle around winter, about 60 days postpartum
There might be a genetic predisposition involved, but ↑ incidence has also been associated w/ ↑ stress 2° to retained placenta, metritis & hypOcalcemia
Name the 2 pathological ovarian cysts which develop in cattle?(1) Anovulatory Follicular Cysts (Cystic Graafian Follicles) (Graafian has 2 ‘a’s bc its other name is Anovulatory)
(2) Luteal cysts
(3) Cystic Corpora Lutea also happen but are NOT pathological)
Pathological cysts of cattle: Follicular cysts (Cystic Graafian follicles) - What is the criteria needed to label a cyst as a FC? How many? What is the physiological impact of this type of cyst?The follicle is considered a Follicular (Graafian) Cyst when it is >25 mm & persists for >10 days w/o luteal tissue & it never ovulates
Can occur as single or multiple on 1 or both ovaries
This type of cyst will cz Prolongation of postpartum interval to 1st estrus which ↑ time the cow is ‘open’ (= no milk, which is bad)
Cyst produces progesterone
Pathological cysts of cattle: Luteinized cysts - What is happening? How many? Where?This a mature follicle that does not rupture & there are no ovulation papilla. There is Luteal tissue (unlike the follicular/graffian cyst) & usually occurs as a single cyst on one ovary (Luteal is Lonley)
Cystic Ovarian Dz of Cattle: (Follicular & Luteinized cysts) Why do these develop?The formation of the cysts is possibly hypothalamic/pituitary feedback dysfxn → an Inadequate or inappropriate GnRH secretionabsent, inadequate or mistimed LH surge (poorly understood)
What are some predisposing factors of Cystic Ovarian Degeneration?Genetics, ↑ milk yields & negative energy balance (NEB) in the early postpartum period
ACTH/cortical release can suppress the LH surge
Cystic Ovarian Dz of Cattle: Predisposing factors: Negative Energy Balance (NEB) in the early postpartum period - List the variety of hormonal derangements associated w/ this, on top of the derangement of LH surgeReduced blood levels of IGF-1/insulin (makes sense w/ NEB)
levels of non-esterified fatty acids & beta-hydroxybutyric acid (makes sense w/ NEB bc using other things for energy w/ no insulin)
Inappropriate release of ACTH/Cortisol (postpartum stress, endotoxin, ↑ prostaglandins) (stress bc not getting enough energy)
Explain how a follicle develops & ovulates, in terms of the hormones involvedFSH starts the follicle off, the LH pulses keep it going & then LH surge is needed to ovulate. If she doesnt ovulate she wont come back into heat
Explain the differences in LH btwn Follicular & Luteal cystsIn Follicular Cysts, there is little to no LH produced
In Luteal Cysts, the LH is released slowly
Cystic Ovarian Dz of Cattle: What determines the CS of the follicular/luteal cysts of cattle? What are the resulting clinical signs?CS depend on:
TYPE of hormone produced from the cyst (estrogen, progesterone)
AMOUNT produced
Persistence of the production

The MOST COMMON clinical sign is anestrus (progesterone) which czs a prolongation of time btwn parturition & 1st heat. The cyst might cz hyperestrogenism, leading to nymphomania, edema of reproductive tract, cystic glands/ducts, clitoral enlargement, endometrial hyperplasia
Cystic Ovarian Dz in Cattle: Cystic Corpora Lutea - What is happening? Results?A cyst that follows ovulation;
NOT indicative of ovarian dysfxn;
Length of the estrus cycle is not affected;
Ruptured follicle is not completely filled in by luteal tissue, Cyst remains;
If the cow is successfully bred, the cavity will slowly fill in
(dimpled appearance)
Cystic Ovarian Dz of Swine: If there is a single large cyst, what kind of follicle did it come from & what problem can happen?Anovulatory follicle & usually cz NO problems
Cystic Ovarian Dz of Swine: if there are multiple large cysts, what kinda follicle did it come from & what problem can happen?It is occurring from luteinized follicles, they secrete PROGESTERONE & they result in irregular cycles (multiple is bad & LARGE=PROGESTERONE bc thats the hormone when you're preggo & large)
Cystic Ovarian Dz of Swine: If there are multiple small cysts, what kinda follicle did it come from & what problem can happen?It is occurring from cystic follicles (non luteinized tissue), they secrete estrogen & result in irregular cycles

Part II: IT'S NOT A TOMAR!! (its totally a tumor)

Question Answer
**Tumors arising from Germ Cells in the ovary? (2)Dysgerminomas
Tumors arising from Stromal Cells in the ovary?Granulosa Cell Tumor
Tumors arising from Surface Epithelium of the ovary? (2)Cystadenoma
Dysgerminoma: Occurs in who? What cells does this form from? What does it look like? How does it affect the ovary? Is metastasis rare or common?Primarily in DOGS (Disgerminoma, Dogs), can also occur in cattle/swine/horses. This is a tumor made of primitive germ cells (Analogous to testicular seminoma) & is a solid, lobulated mass w/ areas of tumor cell necrosis & hemorrhage. It is DESTRUCTIVE TO OVARY (Dys Destructive). Metastasis is rare however (if it does it's prolly in the dog)
Ovarian Teratoma: Occurs in who? What cells does this come from? Is metastasis rare or common?Rare tumor in dogs, cats, horses & cattle (DHCC get the Tt)
Arise from primordial germ cells & are composed of tissue types from 2-3 embryonic germ layers. Can contain skin, hair, bone, fat, etc. They tumors RARELY metastasize, if they do it's prolly in the dog
What is the most common ovarian tumor in large animals?Granulosa Cell Tumor
Granulosa Cell Tumor: Who does this affect? Is this benign or malignant? Where does it occur & what does it look like? What are the CS?It is the Most common ovarian tumors in large animals
They are usually benign (GRANd that it isnt malig) (except in cats when it is usually malignant & in dogs where it is sometimes malignant)
They usually involve 1 ovary. have a smooth surface, are solid to highly cystic
The CS depend on IF the tumor secretes hormones & how much hormone
Some possible hormones produced are inhibin(inhibits FSH), estrogen, or androgens
Possible CS are anestrus, nymphomania, or male (stallion/bull) like behavior
What are the usual clinical signs of a DOG w/ a GRANULOSA CELL TUMOR? (stromal cell tumor)Dog will have a prolonged cycle 2° to ↑ & prolonged progesterone secretion
Cystic endometrial hyperplasia & pyometra can occur (dogs have a GRANd time PPeeing, being HYPER & will PYO up on you lovingly)
Cystadenoma/adenocarcinoma arise from where in the ovary & usually affect who?Arise from the epithelium covering the ovary
It is primarily a tumor of dogs. ( aDenoma Dogs & their epithelium dont get along)
Where do ovarian Cystadenoma/adenocarcinoma usually occur? What do they look like? What is their behavior like? What is a common CS associated w/ these tumors?(From epithelium, dogs usually) Usually bilateral & have a roughened surface
If malignant, it will spread to mesenteries via lymphatics: ASCITES 2° to lymphatic obstruction
Ovarian tumor usually associated w/ ascites due to lymphatic blockage?Cystadenoma/Adenocarcinoma (think how the outside layer usually makes fluid & now associated w/ ascites which is more fluid)
Fetal ovaries of foal: Explain what is happening in this situation. Is it a problem?Enlargement of the fetal ovary 2° to proliferation & enlargement of interstitial endocrine cells stimulated by Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin (formally PMSG) from the mare
The interstitial endocrine cells atrophy & disappear before birth
Not a problem