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Path 1 - Cardio

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drraythe's version from 2016-03-07 10:40

Cardio Quick & Dirty

Question Answer
**Thickness of the walls is proportional to?Pressure in the chamber, left:right ratio = 3:1
**Sig. change in weight or shape of the heartDilation & Hypertrophy
**Left CHF sequelaePulmonary congestion & edema BEHIND the failing chamber
Pneumonia
**Right CHF sequelaeHepatic congestion (nutmeg liver) & more severe Na & H2O retention than seen w/ Lt CHF. Edema is evident predominantly as ventral subcutaneous edema in horses & ruminants, ascites in dogs & ***hydrothorax in cats***
*Valentine shapesHorse & Cow
**If the LV is filled w/ clotted blood 15-30 minutes after death is means some kind of?Myocardial dz was present pre-mortem
**Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)- Dogs & Calves
- Calves delayed fnxal closure
FETAL SHUNT CLOSURE FAILURE
**Atrial Septal Defect (ASD)Patent Foramen Ovale
FETAL SHUNT CLOSURE FAILURE
**Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)Usually subarotic
FETAL SHUNT CLOSURE FAILURE
**Tetralogy of Fallot (ToF)VSD
PV stenosis
Dextroposed aorta
- 2° RV hypertrophy
MAY CZ CONOTRUNCAL SD IN KEESHONDS
**Pulmonary Valve Stenosis (PS)- Pulmonic stenosis, dogs
- May be supravalvular, valvular, or subvalvular
- 2° compensatory RV hypertrophy
NORMAL VALVE DEV. FAILURE
**Hemopericardium definition/czCLOTTED Blood in pericardial sac
- Iatrogenic puncture
- FB (nail, wire)
- Ruptured vessel (aorta of horse) or chamber (post-infarction aneurysm, spontaneous atrial rupture in dogs)
- Rupture of neoplasm
**Hemopericardium sequelaeCardiac failure, shock from compression of atria & inability to fill the chambers
*Hydropericardium definition/czEdema
- Serous pericarditis (uremia, Na/Cl poisoning in chickens)
- Rt CHF
- Obstruction at base of heart
**Differentiate Hemorrhagic Pericardial Effusions from Hemoparicardium?Hemorrhagic Pericardial Eff. = Blood NOT clotted
**Fatty DegenCz: Anemia, Toxemia, Cu def
Lesion: Mottled, pale & flabby, Thrush-breast heart, spherical vacuoles in myocytes (Oil Red Stain)
**Myofibrillar DegenAKA: Myocytolysis
Furazolidone Tox in Birds (Flabby Heart)
**Vacuolar DegenCz: Doxorubicin cardiotoxicity, Antivirals & **Anthracyclines
Histo: Sarcoplasmic vaculation due to distention of sarcoplasmic reticulum, moyofibrillar lysis, myocyte atrophy, fibrosis
Vacuolar degen & Myocytolysis result from mitochondrial swelling & disruption
****Differentiate Valvular EndcardiOsis from EndocardItisEndcardiOsis = N'O'dular thickenings on valve cusps
- 2° Jet lesions on ultrasound are smooth, firm & thick mitral valve nodules in aging dogs
- ***Most common CHF in older dogs***
EndocardItis = 'I'nflammatory response w/ vegetative growths
**Fibrinous pericarditis czHematogenous dissemination in strep, pausteurellosis, salmonellosis, histophilus
*Fibrinous pericarditis lesion- Yellow sheet, strands of fibrin on pericardial surface "bread & butter heart", fibrous adhesions if chronic
*Fibrinous pericarditis sequelae- Death from septicemia
- Recovery w/ adhesions or resolution of exudate
**Supperative (Purulent) pericarditis lesionHardware Dz
Puncture of pericardium & infxn
Distended pericardial sac w/ yellow to white pus thick fibrous pericardium, fetid odor, Foreign Body
****Brisket Dz****Concentric RT Hypertrophy
- Hypoxia ↑ 7000 feet = PULMONARY HYPERTENSION = RHF SC edema of brisket, NUTMEG LIVER
**Feline Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy appearance, what breeds & what does it cz?LV THICK, Persians & Maine Coons
Czs: Saddle Thrombus
**Heart base tumorsChemodectomas
- Important in dogs
- Aortic body obstructing heart base
**Malignant LymphomaCattle, peri/myocardium = FAILURE
**HemangiosarcomaMost frequent in dogs
Close to the RA
1⁰ tumor may be in the Spleen
**Arteries ruptured in a horseAorta: Intrapericardial hemorrhage w/ exertion
Carotid: 2° to Guttural Pouch Mycosis, Epistaxis
**Artery rupture in turkeysAorta: Dissecting = rupture = exsang. especially males
**Czs of ArteriosclerosisHypercholesterolemia/HypOthyroidism
**Path of Arteriosclerosis↑ permeability of endothelium, High LDL, fats, cholesterol
**Lesion of ArteriosclerosisFat streaks on intima (early)
Later thick rough plagues on intima & adhered thrombi
Accumulation of FOAM CELLS
FIBROSIS
HARDENING OF ARTERIES
**Sequalae of ArteriosclerosisTHROMBOSIS = INFARCT = TISSUE ISCHEMIA
**Medial CalcificationVit D poisoning
Plant poisoning
HypERparathyroidism (CaP deposits)
Mg poisoning
*Cachexia (Manchester Wasting dz)
**Thombosis/emboli predisposing factors (Virchow's Triad)Endothelial dmg
Altered blood flow
Hypercoagulability
*Species: Aorto-iliac thrombosis, verminous or idiopathicHorses
*Species: Verminous Arteritis via Stongylus vulgarisHorses
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