Path 1-Block 2

ptheodore's version from 2015-07-05 22:59

Important Carcinogens and Associated Cancers

Question Answer
Hepatocellular carcinoma. Derived from Aspergillus, which can contaminate stored grainsAflatoxins
Leukemia/lymphoma. Side effect of chemotherapyAlkylating agents
Squamous cell carcinoma of oropharynx and upper esophagus, pancreatic carcinoma, and hepatocellular carcinomaAlcohol
Squamous cell carcinoma of skin, lung cancer, and angiosarcoma of liver. Present in cigarette smoke.Arsenic
Lung carcinoma and mesothelioma. Exposure to this is more likely to lead to lung cancer than mesothelioma.Asbestos
Carcinoma of oropharynx, esophagus, lung, kidney, and bladder. Most common carcinogen worldwide; polycyclic hydrocarbons (benzopyrene) are particularly carcinogenic.Cigarette smoke
Stomach carcinoma. Found in smoked food s; responsible for high rate of stomach carcinoma in japanNitrosamines
Urothelial carcinoma of bladder. Derived from cigarette smoke. (aniline dye, rubber industry). Dye and textile industry. Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC)β-Naphthylamine
Angiosarcoma of liver. Occupational exposure; used to make polyvinyl chloride (PVC) for use in pipesVinyl chloride
Nickel, chromium, beryllium, or silicaLung carcinoma (Occupational exposure)
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (Asians), Burkitt lymphoma (Africans), and CNS lymphoma in AIDSEBV
Kaposi sarcomaHHV-8
Hepatocellular carcinomaHBV & HCV
Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphomaHTLV-1
Squamous cell carcinoma of vulva, vagina, anus, and cervix; adenocarcinoma of cervixHigh-risk HPV (e.g., subtypes 16, 18, 31, 33)
AML, CML, and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Generates hydroxyl free radicalsIonizing (nuclear reactor accidents and radiotherapy)
Basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma of skin. Results in formation of pyrimidine dimers in DNA, which are normally excised by restriction endonucleaseNonionizing (UVB sunlight is most common source)
Women who took DES during pregnancy have an increased risk of breast cancer increased risks of clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina and cervix in daughters of women who tookDiethylstilbestrol (DES): synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen

Important Oncogenes and Associated Tumors

Question Answer
Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGFB)Astrocytoma
ERBB2 [HER2/neu] Epidermal growth factor receptorSubset of breast carcinomas
RETMEN 2A, MEN 2B and sporadic medullary carcinoma of thyroid
KITGastrointestinal stromal tumor
RAS gene family (GTP-binding protein)Carcinomas, melanoma, and lymphoma
ABL (Tyrosine kinase)t(9;22) with BCR, CML and some types of ALL
c-MYCt(8;14) involving IgH, Burkitt lymphoma
L-MYCLung carcinoma (small cell)
CCND1 (cydin D1)t(11;l4) involving IgH, Mantle cell lymphoma
CA-125Ovarian Cancer
FLT3 (tyrosine kinase)Myeloid leukemias
Protooncogene SISThe sis oncogene encodes platelet-derived growth factor receptor β, which is overexpressed in certain astrocytomas)
ALK gene inLymphomas (ALK is always malignant)
ERBB1lung adenocarcinoma (head and neck cancers)
BRAFHairy cell leukemias & melanomas
JAK/STATpolycythemia, primary myelofibrosis
p16/CDKN2A/INK4germline mutation in melanoma & pancreatic adenocarcinoma
SMAD 4pancreatic cancers
PTENCowden syndrome (Endometrium). Postmenopausal bleeding
Downregulation of the RAS signal transduction pathway, phaeochromocytoma NF-1 (neurofibromatosis 1)
von Hippel-Lindau (VHL)hereditary renal cell cancers & pheochromocytomas
WT1Wilms tumor (Pediatric tumor), renal and gonadal
Sensitivity to radiological procedures (x-ray's, etc)Ataxia-telangiectasia


Question Answer
Cushing SyndromeSmall Cell Carcinoma of lung (ACTH or ACTH-like substance)
SIADHSmall Cell Carcinoma of lung; intracranial neoplasms (ADH or ANH/ANP)
HypercalcemiaSquamous cell carcinoma of lung (PTHRP)
Carcinoid SyndromeBronchial adenoma (carcioid), serotonin, bradykinin
PolycythemiaRenal Carcinoma (Erytropoietin)
MyasteniaBronchogenic Carcinoma (immunologic)
Acanthosis nigricansGastric Carcinoma (Immunologic; secretion of epidermal growth factor)
Venos Thrombosis (Trousseau Phenomenon)Pancreatic Carcinoma (tumor products; mucin that activates clotting)
Stain for picking up Neuroendocrine cells (small cell carcinoma of lung & Carcinoid tumors).Chromogranin
A rare myasthenia disorder resulting from a reduction in neurotransmitter release from presynaptic terminalsthat develops in association with tumors (small cell carcinoma of lung) Eaton-Lambert syndrome
Cancer associated with Eaton-Lambert syndromeSmall Cell Carcinoma of lung
CD 30 stain use to findLymphomas
Desmin & Vimentin stain are positive forsarcoma
Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)Astrocytoma
Metastasis manifesting as a periumbilical nodule secondary to abdominal or pelvic cancers spread to the umbilicus is colloquially known as theSister Mary Joseph node
Cancer associated with Sister Mary Joseph nodeGastric Carcinoma
Pancoast's syndrome is associated withHorner syndrome
Results from a lesion of the central or peripheral sympathetic nervous system and consists of a small (miotic) pupil associated with mild ptosis and sometimes loss of sweating (anhidrosis)Horner syndrome
A finding felt in rectal examination that indicates that a tumor has metastasized to the Pouch of DouglasBlumer’s shelf
Human Chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)Trophoblastic tumors
CalcitoninMedullary Carcinoma of thyroid
Catecholamine & MetablitesPheocromocytoma
Alpha fetoproteinTumors of testis
Carcinoembryonic antigenCarcinomas of the colon, pancreas, lung, stomach and heart
Neuron-specific enolaseSmall cell cancer of lung, neuroblastoma
PSA & Prostate-specific membrane antigenProstate Cancer


Question Answer
Patient has First Bronchogenic carcinoma followed by acute myeloid leukemia (AML)cyclophosphamide, chlorambucil, busulfan, melphalan


Question Answer
Renal cell carcinoma often invadesRenal vein
Hepatocellular carcinoma often invadesHepatic vein
Follicular carcinoma ThyroidHematogenous Spread
A malignant, trophoblastic cancer, usually of the placentaChoriocarcinoma (Hematogenous Spread)
Seeding of body cavities 'Omental caking' is characteristic ofOvarian Carcinoma (Hematogenous Spread)