Part I - Constitutional Framework - Historical background

santhoshv339's version from 2016-07-15 03:14

Laws, Acts, Governor General, Year

Act/law YearGovernor general / viceroy
Regulating act - 1773GG - Lord warren Hastings
Regulating act Amendment - 1781Lord warren Hastings
Pitts India act - 1784Lord Warren Hastings
Chater act - 1833GGOI Lord William Bentick
Charter act - 1853Lord Dalhousie
GOI act - 1858Lord Canning
ICA 1861Lord Canning
ICA 1892Lord Lansdowne
ICA 1909Vic Minto
GOI 1919Vic Chelmsford
Simon Commision 1927Lord Irwin
Communal Award 1932Vic Lord Willingdon
GOI 1935Vic Lord Willingdon
Indian Independence act 1947Vic Mountbatten

What happened , relevant laws

What happened ?Act/law
Governor of Bengal to Governor General of BengalRegulating act of 1773
Governors of Bombay and madras presidency subordinate to bengalRegulating act of 1773
Beginning of CentralisationRegulating act of 1773
SC of Calcutta provision - 1 Cj + 3 judges(other)Regulating act of 1773
Recognition of political and Admin functions of EICRegulating act of 1773
1st Step to control and Regulate affairs of EICRegulating act of 1773
Prohibition of servants of EIC - private trades and Bribes from nativesRegulating act of 1773
COD should report to british govt on revenue, civil and military affairs (control strengthened)Regulating act of 1773
Distinguishing commerical and Political functions of the companyPitts India act - 1784
Commercial affairs by COD ,political by BOCPitts India act - 1784
Companys territory called as british possessionsPitts India act - 1784
Governor General of bengal to Governor General of IndiaCharter act - 1833
1st Government of India of British PossessionsCharter act - 1833
Deprival of Governors of Madras and Bombay of Legislative powers Charter act - 1833
Laws made under previous acts regulations ,laws made under this law actsCharter act - 1833
GGOI given exclusive legislation powersCharter act - 1833
EIC commercial to administrative bodyCharter act - 1833
Provision - EIC holds territories in trust of His Majesty,heir and successorsCharter act - 1833
Attempt to introduce open competition for civil servantsCharter act - 1833
Indians should not be debarred from holding place,office or position under companyCharter act - 1833
open competition provision negated after opposition from CODCharter act - 1833
Climax of Centralization processCharter act - 1833
Last of Charter actsCharter act - 1853
Separation of legislative and Executive functions of GG CouncilCharter act - 1853
Addition of 6 new members Legislative Councillors to GG CouncilCharter act - 1853
1st legislative body /GG Legislative council ~ British parliamentCharter act - 1853
Introduction of Open System of Selection and Recruitment to civil servicesCharter act - 1853
Before this Civil service 2 types Covenanted higher civil service (created by law of company) and Uncovenanted Lower Civil service (created otherwise)Charter act - 1853
Civil service to IndiansCharter act - 1853
Macaulay Committee /Committee on Indian Civil Service 1854 based onCharter act - 1853
No Specification of time period of Possession of Territories unlike previous chartersCharter act - 1853
Indication that company rule could be ended any timeCharter act - 1853
Introduction of Local representation to ILCCharter act - 1853
4/6 Members of GG Council from provincial govt of Madras, Bombay, Bengal and AgraCharter act - 1853
Act after first war of Indian IndependenceGOI act 1858
Act of Good Government of IndiaGOI act 1858
Abolishment of EICGOI act 1858
Transfer of government,powers,territories and revenues to crownGOI act 1858
India to be governed by the name of her majestyGOI act 1858
Governor general of India to Viceroy of IndiaGOI act 1858
Viceroy becomes the direct representation of the british crownGOI act 1858
End of Double govt COD and BOCGOI act 1858
Creation of Secretary of state office (authority and control over Indian admn)GOI act 1858
Creation of Secretary of state office (member of british cabinet ,responsible to parliament)GOI act 1858
Creation of 15 member council of India to assist Sec of State (advisory body, chariman = SOS)GOI act 1858
Creation of 15 member council of India to assist Sec of State (body corporate,sued in england)GOI act 1858
No significant alteration of system of government (only admn changes)GOI act 1858
Association of Indian in law making processICA 1861
Viceroy to nominate some indians as Non official members in his expanded councilICA 1861
Lord Canning appoints 3 indians to legislative councilICA 1861
Raja of Benares, Maharaja of Patiala and Sir Dinakar rao appointed as Non Official Members in ILCICA 1861
Initiation of Process of Decentralisation in legislative arenaICA 1861
Restoration of Legislative powers of Bombay and Madras presidencyICA 1861
Establishment of new leg councils in Bengal(1862),NWFP(1866) and Punjab(1897)ICA 1861
Empowering viceroy to make rules for convenient transaction of business in the councilICA 1861
Recognition of Portfolio system introduced by canning in 1859ICA 1861
Members of Viceroys council were made incharge for one or more departmentsICA 1861
Members of Viceroys Council were authorized to issue final orders on behalf of the council on matters of his/her deptICA 1861
Viceroy could issue ordinances (during emergency,6 months life time,w/o concurrence of leg council)ICA 1861
Increase in number of Non official members in ILC ,PLC (but maintained official majority)ICA 1892
Increase in functions of leg councils (discussing budget & asking questions to executive)ICA 1892
Nomination of non official members to ILC by viceroy on r/c of PLC and bengal chamber of commerceICA 1892
Nomination of non official members to PLC by governor on r/c of district boards,municipalities,universities,trade associations,zamindars and chambersICA 1892
First time - limited, indirect provision of election for ILC ,PLCICA 1892
Nomination of Members based on r/c (election word not used)ICA 1892
Morley(SOS) - Minto (Viceroy) reformsICA 1909
ILC size increased from 16 to 60ICA 1909
PLC size increased (but non uniform - ILC 16-60)ICA 1909
Allowed Non Offical majority in PLC (But not in ILC)ICA 1909
Further increase in leg functions after ICA 1892(supplementary questions,move resolutions on Budget)ICA 1909
First time association of Indians in Viceroys executive council & gov exec concil(satyendra prasad - law member)ICA 1909
Acceptance of concept of seperate electorateICA 1909
Introduction of communal representation of muslimsICA 1909
Lord Minto - father of communal electorate legalisation of communalismICA 1909
Seperate representation of presidency corporations, chambers of commerce, universities and zamindarsICA 1909
British government declares objective as gradual introduction of responsible government in IndiaGOI act 1919
The act comes to force in 1921GOI act 1919
Montague (SOS) , Chelmsford (Viceroy) reformsGOI act 1919
Demarcation of Central and Provincial Subjects (control on provinces relaxed)GOI act 1919
ILC and PLC laws on their subjects (but structure of govt unitary)GOI act 1919
Division of provincial subjects in to transferred and reservedGOI act 1919
Transferred subjects - admn by governor with aid of ministers responsible to legislative council (dyarchy/Dual governance)GOI act 1919
Reserved subjects - admn by governor with aid of ministers not responsible to legislative council (dyarchy/Dual Governance)GOI act 1919
Introduction of bicameralismGOI act 1919
Introduction of Direct elections (Majority of Upper house and Lower house members)GOI act 1919
ILC to Upper house (council of state) and lower house (legislative assembly)GOI act 1919
3/6 Members of Viceroys Executive council to be Indians (other than commander in chief)GOI act 1919
Seperate electorates for Sikhs, Indian Christians ,anglo Indians and Europeans (extension of communal representation)GOI act 1919
Grant of franchisee to a limited number of people based on property tax OR EducationGOI act 1919
Creation of new office of high commisioner of London (some powers from SOS to HC of London)GOI act 1919
Provision for setting up of public service commission for recruiting civil servants(CPSC set up in 1926 based on lee commission on superior services in india 1923-24)GOI act 1919
Seperation of provincial budgets and Central budgetsGOI act 1919
PLC's could enact their own budgetsGOI act 1919
Provision for appointment of a statutory commission to report in to working of act after 10 yearsGOI act 1919
November 1927 Appointment of statutory commission - 2 yrs before expectedSimon Commission
Boycott of Commision as all members were whiteSimon Commission
Submission of reports r/c 1930Simon Commission
Recommendation of Abolition of dyarchySimon Commission
Recommendation of Extension of Responsible govt to provincesSimon Commission
Recommendation of establishment of Federation of British India and Princely statesSimon Commission
Recommendation of Continuation of Community electorateSimon Commission
Convening of RTC with representatives of Princely states, British India and British govtSimon Commission
Presentation of a ‘WhitePaper on Constitutional Reforms’for the consideration of the Joint Select Committee of the British ParliamentSimon Commission
GOI act 1935 based on some of Recommendations of ?Simon Commission
Scheme of representation of Minorities by Ramsay Mcdonald inCommunal Award August 1932
Extension of Communal electorate to depressed classes (SC's)Communal Award August 1932
Fast unto death in Yeravada jail Poona by Gandhiji to get award modifiedCommunal Award August 1932
Poona pact - Agreement b/w leaders of congress and depressed classesCommunal Award August 1932
Poona pact retention of Hindu Joint electorate - but gave reserved seats to depressed classesCommunal Award August 1932
Milestone act towards completely responsible govt in IndiaGOI Act 1935
Long document - 321 sections and 10 schedulesGOI Act 1935
Establishment of an All-India Federation consisting of provinces and princely states as unitsGOI Act 1935
Division of powers between centre and states - federal, provincial and Concurrent listGOI Act 1935
Residuary powers to viceroyGOI Act 1935
Provided federation act never came in to being as princely states did not join itGOI Act 1935
Abolition of dyarchy in provincesGOI Act 1935
Provincial autonomy in provinces (autonomous units of administration in their reserved spheres)GOI Act 1935
Responsible govt in provinces (governor must act with advice of COuncil of ministers responsible to PLC)GOI Act 1935
Responsible govt comes in to effect in 1935 and gets discontinued in 1939GOI Act 1935
Provision of adoption of dyarchy at centre - federal subjects in to transferred and reserved (did not come in to operation)GOI Act 1935
Bicameralism in 6/11 provinces with restrictions (bengal,Bombay,madras,bihar ,assam and United provinces)GOI Act 1935
Extension of seperate electorate to SC's labour(workers) and womenGOI Act 1935
Abolishment of SOS Council (GOI 1858) replaced with team of AdvisorsGOI Act 1935
Extension of franchisee to 10% of populationGOI Act 1935
RBI, Federal Public service commission, Provincial Public service commission, Joint Public service commission, Federal court (1937)GOI Act 1935
Abolishment of Viceroy - Governor generals for two Dominions appointed by British king based on advice of dominion cabinetIndependence Act 1947
Abolishment of SOS office - transfer of functions to SOS commonwealth affairsIndependence Act 1947
Till new constitution - GOI Act 1935 for governanceIndependence Act 1947
Right of reserving certain bills /veto from king to Governor general (assent in name of majesty)Independence Act 1947
GG of India and provincial governors as Constitutional or nominal heads of states (act with advise of respective Council of ministers)Independence Act 1947
Discontinuation of appointment by SOS to Civil servicesIndependence Act 1947
Members of Civil services appointed before August 15th would continue to get all benefits and entitlementsIndependence Act 1947
Boundaries of two dominions decided by boundary commission headed by RadcliffeIndependence Act 1947
Districts that went to PakistanW Punjab, Sind, Baluchistan, E Bengal, NWFP (Referendum) and Sylhet district of Assam (Referendum)
Royal Assent for Independence Bill came in July 18 1947
Independence Bill introduced in to British Parliament in July 4 1947
Were Women cabinet members present in Interim government of 1946No
Were Women cabinet members present in 1st free cabinet of government of 1947Yes - Amrit Kaur