Part 2 es 3

eshapeesha's version from 2016-06-07 04:19

scorched earth

Question Answer
what was itmid 50’s - 60’s; means destroy land and resources so enemy can’t use it
The ecology of Warreading; book written by susan grant that talks about the korean war and vietnam war.
Vietnam (North and South Vietnam divided)fairchild C-123 and fly over jungles and spray. between soviet union and the U.S.. communist china supported U.S. enemies. war between communism and capitalism 1954
~Defoliationidea that getting rid of jungles would make it easier to take over land. agent orange was used
~Agent Orangecombination of two weed killers and kerosene which suffocates plants. 20 million gallons were sprayed on jungles
~Operation Ranch Hand“Only we can prevent forests” kerosene into water supply. tried to change weather. mess with Monsuno cycle and make it rain more. 1967-1969 the spraying of agent orange on the jungles of vietnam. killed mangrove forests and animals, led to major habitat destruction. handlers developed respiratory problems and cancers
~Rome Plowsscrape forest. 20 pound bulldozer used to plow down jungles
~Jungle fireskerosene and naphtha used with diesel fuel to create hot fires. went into groundwater supply and led to huge contamination
~weather modificationdropped silver iodide on clouds to make it rain
~carpet bombingB-52 drop 2 ton bombs. massive planes with 8 engines that dropped blockbuster bombs
~fuel-air explosivesignited before it hit land, releasing napalm and naphtha, catching everything on fire
~napalmpetroleum that makes a flame and explosives (as opposed to TNT) like in flame throwers
~Jacksonville ARdioxin -ville. most agent orange was made here. many reported cases of cancers and contaminated water
~Kuwait Invasionbush said to help them. mother of all battles. Iraq retreated. Iraq accused kuwait of stealing iraqi petroleum.
~Saddam Husseinopened oil and poured in desert and set it on fire. motive- destroy environment of Kuwait rather than let anyone else have it. whole war lasted a month.
~George W. Bushorganized australia, japan, and 30 other countries to liberate kuwait
~Mother of all battlesnever happened
~Oil Spillscause health complications an issues from the spill such as headaches and memory lost.
~Environmental Terrorismsaddam wanted to destroy kuwait rather than letting anyone else have it, the U.S. wanted to divert water of the tigris and euphrates
Gulf War SyndromeRussian burned crops to fight french and Napoleon.

H bomb

Question Answer
thermonucleara way to achieve nuclear fusion by using extremely high temperatures.
civil defense sheltersbasements to hide in, in case of nuclear attack.
atomic cafefilm footage from 1950s when us was prep for nuc
fallout shelterunderground shelter to hide in
dr. strangelovecomedy that made people start fearing bomb and realizing impact of all out nuclear war.
fail safemovie where nyc and moscow destroyed
atmospheric testing1946-1963, testing in which fall out goes into air
nuclear test ban1963, no atmospheric testing
ban the bomb movementmovement after people realize we wont survive the nucelar war. environmentalists start realizing other issues, people relaize we are destroying earth
nuclear fatalismwe can destroy the world, basis behind rachel carsons writing
fissionsplitting of an atom resulting in nuclear power
fusionseparation of electron from a hydrogen so the hydrogen seeks another electron which is the cause of energy for the heat of the sun

post war shockers (oil and gas)

Question Answer
cleveland ohioan industrial area with refined soil and steel.
cayuhogathere was an oil spill into the cayuhoga, with oil along the top. then the oil slick was set on fire, and the oil slick stopped but the fire stayed AFLAME for 9 days. all the chemicals destroyed it so there was no aquatic life .
1969 sb oil spillus continental shelf was rich with oil, sands is a natural oil sink. at platform a union oil company drilling had high prssure resulting in a rupture, causing a 70,000 barrel spill. this lead to ucsb enviro program!!
1989 exxon valdeztrans alaskan pipeline from north alaska to exxon which was great for econ. the spill was at the prince william sound, super tanker exxon valdez sinks bc it ran into a reef. then 400 mi of williams sound was inundated with oil. used steam for clean up, killing organisms. use steam for clean up to killing organisms
bhopal indiaunion carbide kills 3000 immediately
gulf spillby british petroleum co, pressure too high at bottom of ocean,
dispersantspetroleum distolate used to clean. tar balls appeared in la and east beaches. spills 172 million gallons. 31,000 oil rigs in gulf.

post war shockers ii

Question Answer
3 mile islandlead by metropolitan edison leads, equipment malfunction leads to the safety valve falling so the temperature increased to 5000 and the top of the reactor melted to steam
chernobylmeltdown of reactor 4- 1986. sends plume of radioactive steam around the world. spreads all the way around the world.
japanspring 2011 9.1 earthquake in japan, tsunami 30 m high
fukushima dyichigot wet so the electrical systems shorted out, causign a reactor meltdown
tokyo electric power copowers fukushima dyichi


Question Answer
nepabroad policy law leading to other legislation; changed policies toward development, 1970, environmental legislation
rachel carson and silent springbook focused on the way chemicals are used across the nation to kill pesiticides, complains about there being no legislation, starts movement creating nepa, poplular at colleges. she advocates regulation and strong government
lady bird johnsonwe are all foolish to think that the planet is only for us so we focus on protecting the earth. starts the keep america beautiful movement and encourages litter bags
richard nixonsigned nepa. he was a conservative republican with liberal domestic policy
council on environmental qualityadvise president on environmental issues.
environmental impact statementany development must have environmental impact. companies release this and make it visible to the public
lynton caldwellwrote nepa which includes public involvement, inerdisciplinary planning, interagency involvement
stockholm declarationun environmental policy
nepa and top down governmentsforce environmental policy
oil well analogyyou can have an oil well as long as it meets environmental standards.
why does nepa workworks within the system and survives bc of allowance of development
precautionary principleextreme and strict environmental policy applies more in europe than the united states
bomb analogypopulation is a ticking bomb
paul ehrlichauthor of population bomb, professor at stanford
anne ehrlishwe either limit our population growth or the natural world will do it
do we have a population problem?"yes: arable land decline, high birth rates, no government restrictions. in 1960 there was only only one good acre of land per person on earth. in 2011 there is only .5 of an acre per person. food supply won't sustain this kind of growth. increased longevity
nohigh birth rates are gods will, lack of faith is the main problem. if we believe in god all our problems will go away

julian simon

Question Answer
university of marylandwhere he teaches
neo smithianlets marketplace determine everything
cato institutewhere he teaches
biblenature is important for what it can do to help the human race
believesfree market and economy rule, doesnt believe in importance of biodiversity, views nature in a non spiritual way and sees nature for only human benefit.
simon and erlicksimon bets erlick that 5 metals will be cheaper from 1990 to 1980 but cheap doesnt mean its more abundant

population bomb

Question Answer
neo malthusianssupport this
paul ehrlich and anaecologists who wrote a book about this.
carrying capacitythe amount of people earth can sustain, 2-3 bill people was the initial thought, now enviro say we cant go over 7.7 bill
zpgonly replace yourself when having kids
mega threatswhat he believes will happen next including famines, pandemics, and animal diseases.
bursting bubblewhat he used to refer to the economy, thinks that food can never stand up with how fast the population is growing and eventually we will run out of food to sustain our population.
7.7 billion person carrying capacitywe dont have enough food to suport this many people, initially carrying capacity thought to be 2-3 mill
current figures and projectionscurrently there are 7.2 bill people in the world and our population is increasing by 1.2% a year.

big dams

Question Answer
berecik damat euphrates which used to make electricity
why does turkey dambc poor
high aswan damraise level of low to high, now the nile river doesnt rise and fall in egypt and there is no electricity, allowed egypt to industrialize, now have to import fertilizer
glen canyon dambiggest us dam, provides energy for la, it is is utah
oklahoma damsoklahoma has over 40 big dams blocking off lakes
~Multiple usesbenefit of navigation, flood control, water supply, need for deepwater to supply freshwater, recreation
~Benefit /cost benefit of navigation, flood control, water supply. cons- disruption of ecosystem downstream, disruption upstream, disrupts salmon runs, inhibits delta formation bc rivers arent running.
~NEPA reviewstopped dam projects until passed in 1970
~Alternativs to hydropowernuclear 19%, coal 52% but pollution and exploitation of planet, oil and gas 7%, alternatives like geothermal and solar and wind
~altered environment sustainabilityno resources are without flaws. engineers build dams to work for 75 years and then its a huge maintenance problem to keep going, this will such in reousrces after a while.
~full-stomach phenomenon we dont build dams if we have full stomachs ans are well off economically, only build if we need resoures bc bad econ
~the paradoxwe love dams but they disrupt nature
significancenavigation and flood control; hydropower is super expensive; nuclear is nonrenewable 20% of US power come from this source but it has it’s downfalls; fossil fuel 50% of electricity (mostly coal) must be extraction and transporting & GHG emissions; solar & wind produces less than 10% of US electricity. wind farms are an eye sore. problems with solar. dams alter environment. dams make fisher larger in fresh water, with teeth.
sustainability of damsoriginally given a lifespan of 70 yrs, huge maintenance project though (fixing up)


Question Answer
terraformingterraforming other planets into being habitable.
~Issac Asimovfirst to discover this idea, 1950s sci-fi writer
~The Foundation Trilogythree novels he wrote, set 20,000 yrs in the future, humans have occupied planets throughout the milky way tra
~The foundation Serieswrote another three after trilogy
~Mike Way Galaxyearth is in the milky way, and all the planets in this series are as well.
~Trantor150 billion people on it, about same size as Earth.
~Terminuscapital of Trantor
~Hydrogen, oxygen, Nitrogen (water vapor)essential elements for life, hopefully incorporate them into New planet so it can support biological life through the process of terraforming
~origins of human lifewhat they seek in the book, discover that earth is the origin.
~a dead Earthdead planet with no life (in the later parts of the series) but is the true origin of all other planets with life.
~ unique in the Milky Waythe only things that exist are comet water, planetary dust, and a satellite. this creates life on earth, which is the only planet where conditions have ever been as such.
~ Gaia hypothesisgreek goddess of mother Earth; everyone on earth is earth and part of earth all as 1 organism gaia
~ James Lovelockcomes up w gaia hypothesis and creates earth system science
~ Adlai Stevensonhad unsuccessful presidential runs in the 1950s, thought of concept of spaceship earth, which we have to protect.
~ Spaceship Earthidea that earth is a spaceship supporting all of us that we must take care of or else cant travel safely.