mid 50’s - 60’s; means destroy land and resources so enemy can’t use it
The ecology of War
reading; book written by susan grant that talks about the korean war and vietnam war.
Vietnam (North and South Vietnam divided)
fairchild C-123 and fly over jungles and spray. between soviet union and the U.S.. communist china supported U.S. enemies. war between communism and capitalism 1954
idea that getting rid of jungles would make it easier to take over land. agent orange was used
combination of two weed killers and kerosene which suffocates plants. 20 million gallons were sprayed on jungles
~Operation Ranch Hand
“Only we can prevent forests” kerosene into water supply. tried to change weather. mess with Monsuno cycle and make it rain more. 1967-1969 the spraying of agent orange on the jungles of vietnam. killed mangrove forests and animals, led to major habitat destruction. handlers developed respiratory problems and cancers
scrape forest. 20 pound bulldozer used to plow down jungles
kerosene and naphtha used with diesel fuel to create hot fires. went into groundwater supply and led to huge contamination
dropped silver iodide on clouds to make it rain
B-52 drop 2 ton bombs. massive planes with 8 engines that dropped blockbuster bombs
ignited before it hit land, releasing napalm and naphtha, catching everything on fire
petroleum that makes a flame and explosives (as opposed to TNT) like in flame throwers
dioxin -ville. most agent orange was made here. many reported cases of cancers and contaminated water
bush said to help them. mother of all battles. Iraq retreated. Iraq accused kuwait of stealing iraqi petroleum.
opened oil and poured in desert and set it on fire. motive- destroy environment of Kuwait rather than let anyone else have it. whole war lasted a month.
~George W. Bush
organized australia, japan, and 30 other countries to liberate kuwait
~Mother of all battles
cause health complications an issues from the spill such as headaches and memory lost.
saddam wanted to destroy kuwait rather than letting anyone else have it, the U.S. wanted to divert water of the tigris and euphrates
Gulf War Syndrome
Russian burned crops to fight french and Napoleon.
there was an oil spill into the cayuhoga, with oil along the top. then the oil slick was set on fire, and the oil slick stopped but the fire stayed AFLAME for 9 days. all the chemicals destroyed it so there was no aquatic life .
1969 sb oil spill
us continental shelf was rich with oil, sands is a natural oil sink. at platform a union oil company drilling had high prssure resulting in a rupture, causing a 70,000 barrel spill. this lead to ucsb enviro program!!
1989 exxon valdez
trans alaskan pipeline from north alaska to exxon which was great for econ. the spill was at the prince william sound, super tanker exxon valdez sinks bc it ran into a reef. then 400 mi of williams sound was inundated with oil. used steam for clean up, killing organisms. use steam for clean up to killing organisms
union carbide kills 3000 immediately
by british petroleum co, pressure too high at bottom of ocean,
petroleum distolate used to clean. tar balls appeared in la and east beaches. spills 172 million gallons. 31,000 oil rigs in gulf.
broad policy law leading to other legislation; changed policies toward development, 1970, environmental legislation
rachel carson and silent spring
book focused on the way chemicals are used across the nation to kill pesiticides, complains about there being no legislation, starts movement creating nepa, poplular at colleges. she advocates regulation and strong government
lady bird johnson
we are all foolish to think that the planet is only for us so we focus on protecting the earth. starts the keep america beautiful movement and encourages litter bags
signed nepa. he was a conservative republican with liberal domestic policy
council on environmental quality
advise president on environmental issues.
environmental impact statement
any development must have environmental impact. companies release this and make it visible to the public
wrote nepa which includes public involvement, inerdisciplinary planning, interagency involvement
un environmental policy
nepa and top down governments
force environmental policy
oil well analogy
you can have an oil well as long as it meets environmental standards.
why does nepa work
works within the system and survives bc of allowance of development
extreme and strict environmental policy applies more in europe than the united states
population is a ticking bomb
author of population bomb, professor at stanford
we either limit our population growth or the natural world will do it
do we have a population problem?"
yes: arable land decline, high birth rates, no government restrictions. in 1960 there was only only one good acre of land per person on earth. in 2011 there is only .5 of an acre per person. food supply won't sustain this kind of growth. increased longevity
high birth rates are gods will, lack of faith is the main problem. if we believe in god all our problems will go away
raise level of low to high, now the nile river doesnt rise and fall in egypt and there is no electricity, allowed egypt to industrialize, now have to import fertilizer
glen canyon dam
biggest us dam, provides energy for la, it is is utah
oklahoma has over 40 big dams blocking off lakes
benefit of navigation, flood control, water supply, need for deepwater to supply freshwater, recreation
benefit of navigation, flood control, water supply. cons- disruption of ecosystem downstream, disruption upstream, disrupts salmon runs, inhibits delta formation bc rivers arent running.
stopped dam projects until passed in 1970
~Alternativs to hydropower
nuclear 19%, coal 52% but pollution and exploitation of planet, oil and gas 7%, alternatives like geothermal and solar and wind
~altered environment sustainability
no resources are without flaws. engineers build dams to work for 75 years and then its a huge maintenance problem to keep going, this will such in reousrces after a while.
we dont build dams if we have full stomachs ans are well off economically, only build if we need resoures bc bad econ
we love dams but they disrupt nature
navigation and flood control; hydropower is super expensive; nuclear is nonrenewable 20% of US power come from this source but it has it’s downfalls; fossil fuel 50% of electricity (mostly coal) must be extraction and transporting & GHG emissions; solar & wind produces less than 10% of US electricity. wind farms are an eye sore. problems with solar. dams alter environment. dams make fisher larger in fresh water, with teeth.
sustainability of dams
originally given a lifespan of 70 yrs, huge maintenance project though (fixing up)