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Question Answer
Name the protozoansflagellates, amebas, sporozoans
Name the helminthsnematodes, cestodes and trematodes
3 groups of parasitesprotozoans, helminths and arthropods
Microscopic single celled eukaryotesProtozoans
Cause of amebic dysenteryEntamoeba histolytica
acute/chronic diarrhea with blood and mucusEntamoeba histolytica
Live on bacteria and RBCsEntamoeba histolytica
Must submit stool sample 3 timesEntamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia
Treatment for E. histolyticametronidazole, iodoquinol, paromomycin
Example of ameba protozoanEntamoeba histolytica
Examples of noninvasive flagellatesGiardial lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis
Looks like stingrayGiardia lamblia
Survive 2 months in cold water, lakes, streamsGiardia lamblia
How to kill Giardia lambliaboiling or filtration
Explosive, foul smelling, greasy diarrheaGiardia lamblia
little blood, puss present in diarrheaGiardia lamblia
Treatment for Giardia lambliaMetronidazole, furazolidone


Question Answer
Examples of blood and tissue flagellatesLeishmania and trypanosomes
Characteristics of blood and tissue flagellateslife cycle includes stage in insect host, no direct person to person transmission
Oriental soreLeishmania
Middle East skin lesionLeishmania
Sand flyLeishmania
Dx of LeishmaniaPCR of biopsy
Treatment for visceral leishmaniaAmpho B, oral milterfosine, paromycin
Sleeping sicknessTrypanosoma brucei
tsetse flyTrypanosoma brucei
Org enters wound, to blood, to CNSTrypanosoma brucei
Progressive NS disorder, seizures, coma, 100% fatal if untreatedTrypanosoma brucei
Attracted to exhaled CO2reduviid bug- T. cruzi
Mild acute disease followed by chronic heart diseaseT. cruzi
Swallowing problems, megacolonT. cruzi
Diagnosis of T. cruzireliable serological tests
Swelling of one eyeT. cruzi
Romanas signT. cruzi
Treatment of T. cruziNifurtimox, allopurinol, benznidazole


Question Answer
Examples of SporozoansPlasmodium, toxoplasma gondii, cryptosporidium,
Most deadly type of malariaP. falciparum
Anopheles mosquitoesMalaria
Introduces in saliva during bite (for malaria)sporozoites
Sexual reproduction of plasmodium occurs in? asexual ?sexual in mosquito and asexual in human RBC
What infects the RBCs?merozoites
What are picked up by mosquito from person?gametocytes
Dormant hepatic forms of plasmodiumP. vivax and P. ovale
Explain clinical manifestations of malariastarts as flu-like illness (HA, vomiting) then regular paroxysms occur (fever, chills, rigors q 2-3 days) from synchronized rbc lysis
Resistant to chloroquineP. falciparum
Treat liver forms of disease for malaria (organisms)P. vivax and P. ovale
Treatment for P. falciparumartesunate and mefloquine
Treatment for liver forms (meds)primaquine
Before giving primaquine, what should you test for?Glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase deficiency
Cats infected by eating cysts in rodent tissueToxoplasma gondii
Diagnosis of T. gondiicysts in tissues, or rising IgM titers
How to eliminate cryptosporidiumboil, filter
Watery diarrhea without bloodCryptosporidium
Treatment for cryptosporidiumNitazoxandi


Question Answer
tubular digestive tract, separate male and female wormsnematodes
Grow and mate in colon, simplest life cycleEnterobius vermicularis
PinwormEnterobius vermicularis
Treatment for E. vermicularismebendazole- treat entire fam- repeat in 2 weeks
Largest nematodeAscaris lumbricoides
Live and mate in small intestingAscaris lumbricoides
Coughed up, swallowed, and returned to intestineAscaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus
Can cause intestinal obstructionAscaris lumbricoides
Treatment for Ascaris lumbricoidesmebendazole
WhipwormTrichuris trichura
Attach to colon, cause ulcerations, hemorrhage, anemia, assoc with rectal prolapseTrichuris thichua
HookwormNecator americanus
NOT fecal oral route of transmission- barefootNecator americanus
Suck blood from mucosa in small bowel, anemiaNecator americanus
Treatment for N. americanusmebendazole, pyrantel pamoate
Eosinophilia in travelers, S.E. asia, peptic ulcer s/sStrongeloides stercoralis
Larvae penetrate skin, eggs hatch in host, whole lifecycle completed in same hostStrongeloides stercoralis
Diagnosis of S. stercoralislarvae in stool NOT eggs
Treatment for S. stercoralisthiabendazole, ivermectin


Question Answer
Canine associationToxocara canis
can cause ocular or visceral larval migransToxocara canis
People are dead end hosts for this organismToxocara canis
Fever, high eosinophils, hepatosplenomegaly, seizuresToxocara canis
Diagnosis of Toxocara canisconfirm with serological testing
Treatment for T. canisalbendazole +/- steroids
2nd leading infectious cause of blindnessOnchocera volvulus
BlackfliesOnchocerca volvulus
River blindnessOnchocerca volvulus
mosquitoes and lymphatic systemWuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi
Char of tapewormsno digestive tract, obtain nutrients by absorption thru cuticle, proglottids are reproductive structures
Poorly cooked meattapeworm
Diagnosis of tape wormproglottids, eggs in stool
Treatment for tape worm1 dose of niclosamide, praziuantel
Prevention of tape wormscooking, freezing
Most common cause of seizures worldwideNeurocysticercosis
Liver damage, ascitiesSchistosoma
Tail bearing cercariae penetrate human skinSchistosoma
Most symptoms due to host responseSchistosoma
Treatment of SchistosomaPraziquantel