kuleya's version from 2011-03-15 06:48

Parasitology Basics


Question Answer
2 Flagellatestrypanosoma and leishmania
1 sporozoanplasmodium (carried by mosquito)
Flukes. Suckers? Sexes? Intermediate host?trematodes; 2 oral and 1 ventral sucker; all but schistosomes are hermaphrodites; develop in snail
Which have scrolex and proglottids (body units which are self-contained hermaphrodite segments)cestodes=tape worms
Plasmodium feed on _____, but leave the _____ of Hb. _____ is toxic to the plasmodium, so they get rid of it by _____ into _____.globin but leave heme. Heme. Polymerize in hemozoin.
Halofantrine is available only from the _____ and is a newer malarial agent.CDC
Worms which invadeAscaris, schistomiasis, Taenia Solium, Echinococcus, Strongyloides

Anti-protozoan drugs


Question Answer
_____ is the DOC for girardia, _____ (low dose for short course), and _____. It is a prodrug which is activated by _____ in anaerobic organisms, and then becomes a _____. SE include _____, inhibition of _____, and _____ and _____ at high doses. It’s analog with a longer half-life is _____metronidazole; giardia, trichomoniasis, systemic amoeba infections; PFOR – pyruvate feroxidase reductase; free radical; SE include metallic taste, inhibition of acetaldehyde metabolism (cannot drink), seizures and peripheral neuropathy at high doses; tinidazole
_____ is somewhat similar to metranidazole, but it _____. SE=_____.nitazoxanide; inhibits PFOR – pyruvate feroxidase reductase (instead of being activated by it); scleral icterus
To treat luminal amoebiasis, you could use _____, _____, or _____.paromomycin, iodoquinol, or diloxanide
_____ is an analog of the aminoglycoside neomycin. It is used to treat _____. It works by intefering with protein synthesis and may cause cell membrane damaged. Because _____, it has few side effects. However, at large doses, it can cause _____ and _____, like aminoglycosides.parmomycin; luminal amoeba infections; because it is not readily absorbed; nephrotoxicity & ototoxicity
_____ works by an unknown mechanism. Only about 10% of it is absorbed, and it is used to treat _____. SE include _____, a type of neurotoxicity.Iodoquinol; luminal amoeba infections. SMON – subacute myelo-optico-neuropathy
_____ is used to treat luminal amoeba infections. It is only available through the CDC.diloxanide.
Aside from metronidazole, you can also treat _____ with _____ (available only from the CDC). It is derived from ipecac, so it must be given _____. It works by _____. SE include _____ in up to 80% of pts!systemic amoeba infections; dehydoemetine; cardiac toxicity in up to 80%
Leishmaniasis is caused by the bite of the _____. It infects _____ in the _____ and _____. When this cell lyses, it infects nearby cells. It can be treated with _____ or _____sandfly; macrophages in the skin and viscera. Stibogluconate; pentamidine
_____ is the DOC for treating leishmaniasis. It contains _____. It works by _____ and inhibiting _____. SE include _____, _____, and _____.stibogluconate; antimony (stibium); concentrates in macrophages, where it can inhibit glycosis and DNA/RNA; arrhythmia, renal/hepatic failure, and BM supression
Trypanosomiasis can be treated by _____ or _____ (for early stages) and _____, or _____ for late stages.suramin; pentamidine, melarsoprol; eflornithine
_____ is the DOC for _____. It is administered by the CDC, given IV in the _____ stages of this disease because _____. It is absorbed by the parasite and then _____. It is one of the most toxic drugs in the world and causes _____, _____toxicity, _____, and anaphylactic shock.suramin; trypanosomiasis in early stages because it does not enter the CNS; binds to a variety of macromolecules such as RNA polymerase; vomiting, renal toxicity, peripheral neuropathy, anaphylactic shock
_____ is the DOC for _____ stages of _____. It is concentrated in the parasite and binds to DNA and anything else with _____. Because it contains _____, it has significant SE (_____% of pts die!), indcluding _____ and _____. It can also cause the _____ reaction, where _____ happensmelarsoprol; late stages of trypanosomiasis; binds to DNA and anything with an SH group.; contains As, 3-5% of pts die from med; SE: ataxia, encephalopahty; Mazzotti reaction - parasites are destroyed and release antigens > overwhelming inflammation
_____ is used to treat the early stages of _____ (or Leishmaniasis). It works by _____ and _____. Severe SE include _____, renal failure, and pancreatitis.pentamidine; trypanosomiasis; binding to DNA and inhibiting glycolysis; arrhythmias
_____ is used to treat the late stages of _____. It targets _____. SE include _____, seizures, anemia, leukopenia. Strangely, it _____.eflornithine; trypanomiasis; ornithine decarboxylase; diarrhea; depilatory agent when used topically
_____ disease is caused by the reduviid bug and is treated with _____. This drug is taken for _____ months and works by _____. SE include _____, _____, and seizures.Chaga’s; nifurtimox, 4 month treatment; oxidation; hemolytic uremia in GDPDH deficient pts., peripheral neuropathy
Pediculosis is the infection of lice. It can be treated with _____, which is a _____ for insects (SE include _____) or _____, which _____.benzene hexachloride; neurotoxin (SE=neurotoxin for humans if leave on for too long); pyrethrins (derived from chrysanthemums), which disrupts neurotransmission
To attack plasmodium in the liver only (latent disease – vivax and ovale), you can treat with _____. For the blood, you can use _____, _____, _____, or _____. For mosquito, liver, and RBC, _____, _____, or _____.primaquine; choloroquine, mefloquine, quinine, artimisinin; pyrimethamine, proguanil, trimethoprim
_____ is the DOC for malaria that is not resistant to it. It only works in _____. It is given orally, concentrates in _____, and inhibits _____. At high doses, it can cause _____ or _____.chloroquine; RBCs; acidic plasmodium vacules (because it is a weak base) and inhibits heme polymerization; CNS problems (headache, seizures, psychosis, retinal damage), severe rash
_____ is very similar to chlorquine, but is often used _____.mefloquine; prophylactically
_____ is the DOC for malaria that is resistant to choloquine. It works in the same manner as chloroquine, but also binds to _____. It can lead to _____ loss, blurred vision, and _____.quinine; DNA plasmid, hearing, myocardial depression
_____ is used to treat latent malarial infection (vivax and ovale). It is _____ and causes damage to normal plasmodial _____. SE include hemolytic anemia in G6PDH deficient pts.primaquine; oxidative; metabolism.
_____, _____, _____ are all mainly used prophylactically against malaria. Molecularly, they _____. They are toxic to _____ and prevent _____. SE include _____ in folic acid def. pts., and _____ syndrome, the rash.proguanil, trimethoprim, pyrimethamine; inhibit DF reductase, gametophytes and prevent replication, anemia, Stevens-Johnson
Sulfadozine is often used in combination withpyrimethamine
_____ is a tetracycline, which can be used prophylactively. It inhibits _____. SE include _____ and _____.doxycycline, tRNA binding to A site of 30S. photosenstivity, brown tooth stains
_____ inhibits electron transport in mitochondria so parasites cannot make _____. SE include diarrhea, fever, and naseau. It is used prophylactically in combinatin with _____.atovaquone; DNA; proguanil
_____ (such as artesunate and aremether) treat malaria only in _____, are derived from Chinese herbal medicines. They are prodrugs which are converted to _____ and inhibit _____ in _____. sE: _____ and _____ toxicities.Atremisinins; RBCs, dihydro artemisinin. Neurotoxic and cardiac toxicity