Parasit- Protozoans- Trichomonads, Histomonas Meleagridis, Giardia, entamoeba

vatimeje's version from 2015-07-02 23:54


Question Answer
what is a trophozoite? describe it a little bit.the motile feeding form of trichomonas. fragile, might be infective
when a trichomonas is in cyst stage, what is going on with it?it is very resistant, in a "resting" stage, and this stage is INFECTIVE
what are the two main modes of reproduction for trichomonas? any examples?asexual (schizogony--segment and repro from those segments) or binary fission (budding, conjugation)
what is syngamy?repro by union of gametes (egg and sperm usually)
examples of direct modes of transmissionfecal, oral sexual
examples of indirect modes of transmissionvia an intermediate host
TRITRICHOMONAS FOETUS affects which species? what does it do, and how is it transmitted?BOVINE! it causes abortions, low calving rates and re-breeding. VENEREAL transmission (lives in prepuce, urethra, testes, epididymus, etc)
which stage does tritrichomonas foetus lack?no cyst stage
in what species have tricrichomonas foetus been found in the colon?cats
how is the spread of tricrichomonas foetus being reduced?test bulls for STD! slaughter positive bulls
what is the life cycle of tritrichomonas foetus?

You can put the medicine in the semen and use artificial insemenation.
lives in prepuce of bull (most bulls are asymptomatic), sexually transmitted to cow, where it infects her vagina/cervix/uterus/oviducts and causes early (to late) abortion and the endometritis can cause sterility
how does tritrichomonas foetus affect the COW?Usually, they only harbor T. foetus for a few heat cycles after infection or pregnancy loss.
clinical signs of tritrichomonas foetus in COWearly abortion (3-4mo) to late abortion, endometritis (can cause sterility), and "itis" of all the lady parts
clinical signs of tritrichomonas foetus in BULLusually asymptomatic, as they are the long term carrier. occasionally prepuce swells, mucopurulent discharge
how would you diagnose tritrichomonas foetus?the aborted fetus's stomach contents, placental fluid, uterine/vaginal smears, test prepuce of bull, then CULTURE/PCR (can be frozen if have to wait)
what is the treatment/control of tritrichomonas foetus? disclaimers?CANT USE IMIDAZOLE DERIVATIVES (METRONIDAZOLE) IN RUMINANT FOOD-PRODUCING ANIMALS!! sexual rest for cow. do only artifical insemination for 2 years, avoid co-mingling of herds, and cull bulls >3yo
treatment of bull? are there vx?LACTIC ACID & CLORINE DIOXIDE flushes a lot-- not practical. there are vx, but it wont totally solve problem-- will just help lessen affects on female and WONT help male.
TRICHOMONAS GALLINAE affects what species? aka?BIRDS, esp. DOVES/PIGEONS (aka canker). and RAPTORS (frounce)-- other hosts include chickens (rare), turkeys, pheasants, finches, etc. **young bids esp.
does trichomonas gallinae have a cyst stage?NO. TRICHOMONAS DO NOT HAVE CYST STAGES!!
how is trichomonas gallinae transmitted?fecal-oral route (food, water, beak-to-beak mating ritual contact, cloacal drinking, a predatory bird eating an infected pigeon) and even on moist grains and in water-- bird feeders and water are big vectors
clinical signs of trichomonas gallinae?*mucosal lesions* Depressed, salivate excessively, emaciation, listless, ruffled feathers, dull. difficulty breathing and drinking
pathology of trichomonas gallinae?caseous necrotic masses are in upper GI, in the viscera, also inflammation
diagnosis of trichomonas gallinae?GROSS LESIONS (caseous necrotic masses too, etc) history and clinical signs, and DEMONSTRATION OF THE ORGANISM!! *must be collected within 48 hrs of death to be a viable sample
treatment of trichomonas gallinae?Dimetridazole, Metronidazole (Flagyl),Copper sulfate, Enheptin, Carnidazole.... note that metronidazole CANNOT BE USED IN FOOD ANIMALS!!!! (wild birds hard to treat bc of unregulated water and food sources)
PENTATRICHOMONAS HOMINIS affects which species? where does it like to live?in the COLON OF CATS AND HUMANS.
how is pentatrichomonas hominis transmitted? clinical signs? treatment?fecal, oral, and rectal transmission. causes diarrhea. treat with FENBENDAZOLE and METRONIDAZOLE
Tritrichomonas blagburni affects what species? clinical signs?Cat's GI (diarrhea, flatulance, incontinence)
can a cattle get trichomonas from a cat?NO different species for diff species
which trichomonas's can cats get?tritrichomonas blagburni, pentatrichomonas hominis, Tetratrichomonas felistomae
TRICHOMONAS CANISTOME affects what species? where is it found? clinical signs?DOGS, in their mouths and found in urine sediment. USUALLY THIS IS A COMMENSAL (non pathogenic) but small chance of causing vaginitis
Tetratrichomonas felistomae affects which species? where is it found? tx?Found only in the mouths of FIV, FeLV, or FIP positive cats!! NOT CATS WITH STOMATITIS. try to improve oral hygene


Question Answer
what does histomonas meleagridis look like? where do you ususally find it?**IF IN INTESTINAL LUMEN--- 1-2 flagella and pleomorphic. **IF IN TISSUES--- NO flagella, found singly OR in clusters **transitional stage may be found in lumen, it is enclosed by a dense membrane
histomonas meleagridis affects what species?parasite of turkeys, chickens, other birds.
what is the condition caused by histomonas meleagridis?HISTOMONIASIS OR “BLACK HEAD DISEASE”
does histomonas meleagridis have a cyst stage?NO. (neither does trichomonas)
how is histomonas meleagridis transmitted?DIRECT: only through cloacal drinking. OTHERWISE, transmitted by HETERAKIS GALLINARUM a cecal worm of birds, or EARTHWORMS, these serve as paratenic hosts
clinical signs of histomonas meleagridis?most severe in TURKEY. YELLOW DROPPINGS, skin may turn black (hence "black head dz"), ruffled feathers. **LIVER LESIONS ON TURKEY? ---> THINK HISTOMONAS
prevent/treatment of histomonas meleagridis?SEPARATE turkeys and chickens for prevention. meds---> nitarsone in feed, fenbendazole, or metronidazole*********--> NOT FOR FOOD POULTRY


Question Answer
is giardia zoonotic? if it is, which ones?YES. A1, A3 and B are the zoonotic assemblages
does giardia have a cyst form?YES
what are the life stages of giardia?tophozoite AND cyst stage
how can you identify giardia in the trophozoite stage?"Smiley face" created by the 2 nuclei and the median bodies (unique to giardia!!) (also flagella, adhesive disk, tear-drop shape)
how does giardia reproduce?binary fission
explain the cyst stage of giardia (attributes, type of stage, etc)INFECTIVE, resistant stage. no smiley face. feces entering the colon begin to dehydrate and encystment occurs
the transmission/life cycle of giardia is?fecal oral
clinical signs of giardia?GREASy, PALE COLORED, MUCOUSY DIARRHEA. (also weight loss, dehydration, intestinal pain, gas, chronic wasting in ruminants)
diagnosis of giardia?fecal flotation and can stain to ID. also ELISA test (snap).....take gelatin capsule with string attached, then pull up string, any trophozoites adhere to the string and they can test the string
prevention/control of giardiaboil water, iodine, good hygiene, safe food storage and handling. removal of animal feces.
drug for giardiametronidazole


Question Answer
is entamoeba zoonotic?yes!
how does entamoeba start out?free living cyst in the water
who does E. histolytica affect? how many nuclei?ZOONOTIC, so affects humans and non human primates. 1-2 nuclei
who does E. invadens affect? how many nuclei? reptiles. has 1-4 nuclei with central endosome (vacuole that just came out of the ER)
transmission of entamoebafecal oral
what is one way to ID E. histolytica?you can see RBCs in their food vacuoles when they are stained
symptoms of e histolyticaintermittent diarrhea, cramps, vomiting, general malaise
what type of lesions are unique to E. HISTOLYTICA?FLASK-SHAPED LESIONS
diagnosis of entamoeba cysts in feces, trophozoites in diarrhea stool, elisa, etc...