Parasit - Midterm 1

drraythe's version from 2015-08-31 03:57

ORDER Cyclophyllidea!

Question Answer
What is the infective stage, what is it called?The larval stage, called a metacestode
What are the 3 parts of the body? explain the parts(1) Scolex ("head", anterior part attaching to organs)
(2) Neck (undifferentiated where segments begin to develop)
(3) Strobila (Maturing units (proglottids) containing male & female sexual organs) → oldest/most mature are near the tail end, & at that point they are just gravid uterus full of oncospheres (eggs)
What is the life cycle of a cyclophyllidea cestode?Egg/oncosphere ingested by intermediate host → Metacestode → intestines of definitive host → scolex attaches to intestinal wall & neck begins to bud off segments → begins to mature & fertilize → only the gravid proglottid eliminated through feces

Family Taeniidae

Question Answer
Describe the scolex of Taeniidae4 suckers +/- rostellum w/ hooks
Describe the genital pores of TaeniidaeUnilateral genital pores alternating irregularly (on 1 side of the side of the wormie)
What are the DHs of Taeniidae?Humans! (Also carnivores such as dogs, cats, etc)
Which tissues do Taeniidae particularly like to hang out in?In liver & peritoneal membranes or skeletal & cardiac muscle

Taenia Saginata

Question Answer
Describe the scolex of T. saginataNo rostellum or hook (no hooks or rosters to keep you from being saggy)
DH of T. saginata? How is the DH infected?*HUMANS*, they are infected by eating raw or undercooked beef *REPORTABLE*
IH of T. saginata?Cattle
Metacestode of T. saginata → what is it called? Where does it like to live in the IH?Cysticercus bovis located in striated muscle of heart, tongue, masseter, intercostal muscles
Pathogenesis of T. saginata in the DH?Diarrhea, hunger pains, usually asymptomatic
Pathogenesis of T. saginata in the IH? (What is the name of it? when is it infective to the DH? describe how it looks/clinical signs)Cysticercus bovis! (saggy beef) Visible in muscle 2 weeks after ingestion (pale spot). It is infective to humans (DH) after 10-12 weeks. Viable for 9mo. The scolex is visible in the cyst (no hooks) & they cysts are grey-white, if dead they are calcified. NO CLINICAL SIGNS ASSOCIATED IN IH.
How would you dx T. saginata in the IH?You would see the grey-white cysts in the meat upon meat inspection.
How to rememberYour diaper is going to be pretty saggy if you eat bad beef. & your report card will suffer from that, it'll take you 10-12 weeks to catch up

Taenia solium

Question Answer
How can you tell the difference between T. solium & T. saginata?SOLIUM HAS ROSTELLUM/HOOKS & SAGINATA DOES NOT
Describe the scolex of T. soliumRostellum & 2 rows of hooks
What is the DH of T. solium?*HUMANS* REPORTABLE!
What is the IH of T. solium?*HUMANS* & PIGS!
Metacestode of T. solium → called what? Causes what where?Cysticercus cellulosae causes cysticercosis in many tissues → brain (neurocysticercosis), eye, lung...
How is the IH of T solium infected?(IH humans or pigs) Humans contaminated by ingesting tape eggs on vegetables or food contaminated w/human feces
How is the DH of T. solium infected?(DH is humans) Consuming undercooked pork
What is the PATHOLOGY of T. solium? (DH & IH)In PIGS (IH) there are NO signs! However, there are signs in humans, both as the IH & the DH. It can be asymptomatic, loss of vision if they are in the eye, CNS signs= neurocysticercosis (Dude flying out his car), mental disturbance, epilepsy, intracranial hypertension
How would you diagnose T. solium in the IH? In the DH?In PIG, you'd see the cysticercoids in the tissues. In HUMANS, if there is neurocysticercosis, CAT scan/MRI/radiograph/serology/CSF tap
How to rememberThis hooker has a sol, even if she has cellulite! You'd be a pig of a human to abuse her. If you do, she will go TOTALLY CRAZY & fling infected human poop at you.

Family Echinococcus

Question Answer
What to know about the oncospheres?Very resistant, viable up to 2yr
How does this cestode family become ZOONOTIC?Humans ingest oncospheres
How big are echinococcus family cestodes?1 of the SMALLEST, only 4-5 segments long
Explain what a hydatid cyst looks likeLarge, thick laminated, fluid filled cyst w/ germinal epithelium surrounding brood capsules containing invaginated scolicies
Explain Unilocular hydatid diseaseSingle cyst, does not infiltrate
Explain Alveolar hydatid diseaseINFILTRATES, many compartments
What is Hydatid sand?Rupture of brood capsules releasing Protoscolices

Echinococcus granulosus

Question Answer
Is E. granulosus unilocular or alveolar?Unilocular
DH of E. granulosus? Where do the adult E. granulosus like to live in the DH?Dog, wolf, coyote. Live in intestines of DH
IH of E. granulosus?Domestic/wild ruminant, pig, kangaroo, humans *ZOONOTIC*
Explain the metacestode stage of E. granulosus (what & where?)Unilocular (1 cavity) hydatid cyst in liver & lungs
Explain the E. granulosus life cycles (2) (2 to make up for the fact it is unilocular, as opposed to multilocularis which is alveolar)(1) Pastoral → DH is canids, IH is sheep, camels, reindeer
(2) Sylvatic → DH is wild canids, IH is wild ruminants (human is like an accidental IH)
What are the characteristics of E. granulosa? (Look like? what are the eggs like? how is it diff from Taenia? what is their form in the IH?)1 of the SMALLEST cestodes (only 4-5 seg), they have very resistant oncospheres. Only a SINGLE genital pore. Has a UNILOCULAR HYDATID CYST (not a cysticercus, not a coenurus)
In what ways are Taenia & echinococcus similar? How are they different?They have very similar eggs. BUT, T has many genital pores, E only has 1 genital pore. E is extremely small. T has a cysticercus, E has a hydatid cyst.
Name of condition of metacestode?Unilocular hydatidosis
WHERE are the cysts, & what is their repro status in → sheepMostly lungs, cysts are fertile (think about sheep lung in haggis)
WHERE are the cysts, & what is their repro status in → cattleMostly liver, sterile cysts
Clinical signs of E. granulosus in the DH?No clinical signs
Clinical signs of E. granulosus in the domestic animal IHs? (Where is the cyst?)Hepatic or pulmonary hydatid cyst. Well tolerated, pressure atrophy on surrounding tissue (doesnt infiltrate tissue though, bc unilocular)
Clinical signs of E. granulosus in the HUMAN IH? (Where is the cyst?)Hepatic or pulmonary hydatid. Respiratory signs (if resp, coughed up & lesions heal), abdominal distention. Allergic reactions/anaphylaxis from leak of fluid → death. Rupture of cyst- release scolices, brood capsules in pleural/peritoneal cavity→ multiple hydatid cysts everywhere!!- Eventually die out
How would you diagnose a human w/ E. granulosus?Serology, scanning
How do you control/prevent/treat E. granulosus (dogs & humans)DOGS → Anthelmintic & discourage feeding of uncooked offal. HUMANS → Tx is "PAIR" (puncture unilocular hydatid cyst, Aspirate fluid, Insert solution to kill germinal layer ETOH(ethyl alcohol), Re-aspirate fluid)
What is a Endogenous daughter cyst?Free in cyst cavity or attached to epithelium
What is an Exogenous daughter cyst?B/w hydatid membrane & host CT capsule
What are Sterile hydatids?No brood capsules containing scolices, no daughter cysts

Echinococcus multilocularis

Question Answer
Unilocular or alveolar hydatid cyst for E. multilocularis?Alveolar
DH of E. multilocularis?Wild canids, dog, & cat (multi= MORE (includes cat) )
IH of E. multilocularis?Microtine rodents (voles & lemmings) *Humans* *ZOONOTIC* (deadly for IHs, no problem for DHs, ie, dogs & cats) (think of the pic of the mouse w/ all the huge budding shit in its abdomen)
Where do the hydatid cysts of E. multilocularis like to hang out?LIVER & lung
Describe the hydatid cyst of E. multilocularis (which type, what does it look like, what does it do)Alveolar type! So Exogenous budding of cyst, proliferates & infiltrates surrounding tissue like malignant neoplasm
Clinical signs of E. multilocularis in DH?No lesions
Clinical signs of E. multilocularis in IH?Alveolar hydatid infections, fatal (when cancer & parasites have a baby, you are dead)
How would you dx E. multilocularis in humans?Humans- radiography, ultrasound, CAT scans, ELISA
How do you control/treat E. multilocularis?Humans= no treatment in humans. Dispose of carcass properly, Translocate definitive host (dogs, cats), Do not feed domestic canids uncooked offal!
When I say protoscolices, you thinkHydatid sand
How can history help you dx E. multilocularis? What about lab stuff?Eggs identical, so need PCR, but hx - if dog ate fox scat & ate eggs

Family Diplidiidae

Question Answer
Which animals are affected by the diplidiidae family?Dogs, cats, birds (go figure, your pet bird can get the tapeworm your dog has...)
Describe the scolex of the diplidiidae familyScolex w/ 4 suckers & retractile rostellum w/ rows of thornlike hooks (dogbutt dioldo hookers)
The metacestode has which cyst? Whats it look like?CYSTICERCOID! -COID NOT -CUS!! In the ARTHROPOD IH!! Evaginated scolex embedded in cyst (arthropods) (cysticercus is in mammalian IH & is invaginated)


Question Answer
DH of D. caninum?Domestic dog & cat, occasionally human children *ZOONOTIC*
IH of D. caninum?Fleas & lice (cysticercoid)
Describe the lifecycle of D. caninum?Person/dog/cat eats a flea/lice → cysticercoid → poop egg → flea/lice eat egg → person/dog/cat eat flea
Describe the segments (proglottids) of D. caninumSegments cucumber seed-like w/ 2 sets of genital organs & bilateral genital pores. Eggs clustered in packets (INSIDE of the proglottids). The proglottids can crawl around on the tail region.
Clinical signs caused by D. caninum?Non-pathogenic in DH, though might cause Pruritus ani ((itchy butthole) which leads to scooting behavior
How can you control D. caninum?Insecticide use on animal & environment
How can a person be infected w/ D. caninum?Zoonotic by eating flea w/ cysticercoid

Family Mesocestoididae

Mesocestoides corti

Question Answer
Is M. corti zoonotic?Technically yes, but very rare
What is the form of the metacestode in M. corti? (Whats it look like)(Cysticercoid in the insect/mite) tetrathyridium- worm like larva w/ invaginated scolex (picture makes it look like a weird triangle worm)
Describe the scolex/genital pores of the tetrathyridium of M. cortiScolex: 4 suckers, no rostellum or hooks. Mediodorsal genital pore.
What are the DH of M. corti?Dogs, cats, wild carnivores
What are the IH of M. corti? (What, where, etc)THERE ARE 2 DIFF TYPES OF IH's!!!
(1) Insect or mites w/ cysticercoid (evaginated scolex, cysticercoid is in ARTHROPODS)
(2) Mammals & reptiles w/ tetrathyridia in peritoneal cavity or bird w/ tetrathyridia in lungs (fish it NOT AN IH IN M. CORTI, ONLY IN the diphyllobothrium latum)
What is the lifecycle of M. corti? (How is DH infected?)Dogs & cats(DH) get infected by predation of snakes, birds, & small mammals (IH)
How & where do M. corti reproduce/multiply?Asexually in the intestines of dogs (DHs)
Whats all special about eggs/segments etc of M. corti?Eggs accumulate in paruterine organ, eggs not like any other
Clinical signs of M. corti?*Pleural effusion in lungs due to asexual division (pleural effusion + pulmonary disease; NO lung masses) ( you need good lungs if you gonna play on the basketball cort)
In terms of reproduction, describe what is going on w/ M. corti (what do the eggs look like, where are the eggs)Eggs dont have striated border, periuterine horn → organ full of eggs ↓
How to rememberThere are four(tetra-tiridium) corts, 1 is for arthropods to play on, 1 is for snakes/birds/small animals, 1 is for dogs/cats/wild carnivores, & 1 is for horrifying things like periuterine & dorsal genital pores. YOU NEED GOOD LUNGS TO PLAY ON THE B-BALL CORT (plural effusion w/ no masses)

Family Anoplocephalidae

Anoplocephala perfoliata

Question Answer
Is Anoplocephala perfoliata zoonotic?No
DH of A. perfoliata?HORSES & donkeys
IH of A. perfoliata? Form inside IH?Mites (cysticercoid)
Describe the scolex of A. perfoliataLappet behind each of the 4 suckers (little folded down flappy looking thing) (think of horses wearing shirt collars)
Describe the eggs of A. perfoliataEggs- irregularly spherical or triangular have piriform apparatus
What is a piriform apparatus?It supports oncosphere (eggshell) (pair of triangular structures in the eggs of anoplocephalid tapeworms surrounding the oncosphere.) A. perfoliata is a triangle-shaped worm w/ a triangle-shaped apparatus
What is the lifecycle of A. perfoliata like?Mature segments passed in feces → disintegrate, releasing eggs → mites ingest eggs → develop into cysticercoid → horse ingests mite (it is a soli mite, so horse gets it while FORAGING. found near ileocecal valve
Clinical signs of A. perfoliata?Heavy infections- enteritis, diarrhea, ileocecal spasmodic colic, intussusception of ileum into cecum, rupture of bowel wall near ileocecal valve, intestinal obstruction, ulceration, inflammation, fatal
How can you dx A. perfoliata?Dx is Difficult (eggs & proglottids in feces but very hard to find), surgery (see near the ileocecal valve), Serum for ELISA, fecal PCR
Interesting thing about prevalence?Highly prevalent in winter!