Parasit Midterm 1 - Spring 2015

drraythe's version from 2015-08-31 04:01

Intro: TREMATODES (flukes)

Question Answer
DH of trematodes are usually?Mammals/birds
*How many IHs, & what are they?(1) Snails
(2) Invertebrates
Walk through their lifecycleEgg deposited in freshwater via feces → operculum opens → miracidium (ciliated) → penetrates snail → sporocyst (rediae) → cercariae → penetrate 2nd intermediate host → transform into metacercaria → consumed by definitive host → adult
Characteristic of eggs?Have operculum
*What is a miracidium?Ciliated stage which comes from the egg, which penetrates a snail (look at all my clia in the mirror. Vain little baby)
What is a Sporocyst?Comes after miracidium. Has germinal cells developed from snail, has mouth & digestive system
What is a Rediae?Comes after sporocyst has oral sucker, some flame cells, simple gut
*What is a cercaria?Free-swimming form which penetrates skin of DH/2nd IH
What is a Metacercariae?Encysted cercariae after shedding tails. Encysts on plants OR on animals (2nd IH) (Meta means w/in something)
How do you generally detect trematode eggs?Fecal sedimentation (because eggs are generally large & heavy). Can also use ELISA
Can trematodes be zoonotic?YES

Heterobilharzia americana (Schistosoma)

Question Answer
What is a gynaecophoric canal?Separate sexes w/ small adult female laying permanently in groove (the canal) of the male (personally id find it shisty to lay in a mans canal all my life)
Zoonotic?Yes (Bird schistosomes & Heterobilharzia americana cause swimmer’s itch)
Where are adult schistosomes usually found?Mesenteric veins
Heterobilharzia americana DH?Raccoons, dogs, cats, bobcats, lynx, nutria, horses (as long as it's opposite sex, heteros will do just about anything)
Heterobilharzia americana IH?Snail
What is the infective stage of Heterobilharzia americana?Cercariae
What are some clinical signs/problems from Heterobilharzia americana?*Eggs induce granulomatous reaction. Also pipe stem fibrosis & liver failure
How would you dx heterobilharzia?*Dx: Eggs in feces, starry sky liver in ultrasound
MemorizeThe hetero-male said "SHIST" as he looked down & saw his legs covered in parasites. His starry-eyes outlook became a starry-livered outlook real fast, & packed his pipe-stem to calm down

Nanophyetus salmincola & Neorickettsia helminthoeca

Question Answer
IH(1) Snail (Oxytrema silicula)
(2) Salmonid fish
How harmful is nanophyetus?Non-pathogenic, but is a vector for Neorickettsia helminthoeca
Clinical signs/symptoms due to what, & are?Due to the NEORICKETTSIA! Hemorrhagic enteritis & lymphadenopathy, vomiting, diarrhea, fatal w/o treatment
Zoonotic?Yes, from eating incompletely cooked salmon
Dx?Fecal sedimentation
How does the fish get infected from the snail?Cercariae emerge from snail & penetrate skin of salmonid fish, encyst on tissues as metacercariae
MemorizeNano-sized fish carrying nano-sized bact will kill you in a nano2nd

Paragonimus kellicotti / lung fluke

Question Answer
IH(1) Snail (Pomatiopsis lapidaria)
(2) Crayfish
Describe eggsYellow & vase-shaped
Clinical signs?Lots of coughing
Where do adults like to live in DH?Lungs (encapsulated by fibrous cysts connected by fistulae to bronchioles)
Zoonotic?Yes, eating undercooked crawfish
Dx?Flotation or sedimentation of eggs in feces or sputum, Signet ring like lesions in lung radiographs
MemorizeGONE from the crawdad cookout I was, coughing up a lung


Question Answer
DHDogs, cats, foxes, mink
IH(1) Freshwater snail
(2) Frogs
Paratenic host?Frog, snake, mouse (ingest infected tadpole)
Where do adults like to live?In sm intestine
Life cycle?*Large unembryonated egg passed in feces → miracidium penetrates snail → cercariae penetrate skin of tadpole & transform into mesocercariae (un-encysted metacercariae) → eaten by paratenic host → definitive host infected by eating Paratenic host w/ encysted mesocercariae → flukes penetrate diaphragm → lungs → esophagus → small intestine → adults attach to mucous membrane of small intestine
How can Alaria be transmitted uniquely?Transmammary xmission
Zoonotic?Yes, eat improperly cooked frog legs
Clinical signs?Duodenitis in dogs & cats, pulmonary hemorrhage in humans, catarrhal enteritis
Dx?Large, yellow brown- greenish operculated eggs in feces
MemorizeAlana was a nice girl w/ big breasts that liked to eat frog legs, until 1 day eating them made her shit her small intestine out

Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (Acanthocephala/ Thorny-head worm of swine)

Question Answer
What does the worm look like?*Retractable spiny proboscis
Egg looks like?*Egg- football shape, multilayered
Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus DH?Swine
Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus IH?May beetles/June bugs, dung & water beetles
Clinical signs?GI upset
Dx?Eggs in feces, sedimentation technique
MemorizeMac was a total man-pig, played football & was shitty, even bugs didnt like him

Check yo'self TREMATODES

Question Answer
How do you gotta fecal dx most flukes?Fecal sedimentation/ELISA
Gynaecophoric canal is who?Schistosoma
What causes swimmer's itch?Schistosomes like Hetero cause swimmer’s itch
What is the infective stage of Heterobilharzia americana?Cercariae
Which 2 do pipe stem fibrosis?Heterobilharzia americana & fasciola hepatica
Starry sky liver?Heterobilharzia (schistosome)
Neorickettsia helminthoeca associated w/ what?Nanophyetus salmincola
Salmon poisoningNanophyetus salmincola
ACUTE hemorrhagic enteritis & lymphadenopathy, vomiting, diarrhea, fatal w/o treatmentDue to the neorickettsia-infected nanophyetus infestation
Lung fluke aka?Paragonimus kellicotti
CrayfishParagonimus kellicotti
Yellow vase-shaped eggsParagonimus kellicotti
Lots of coughing, w/ eggs in sputum or fecesParagonimus kellicotti / lung fluke
Signet ring like lesions in lung radiographsParagonimus
Frog legsAlaria
Transmammary xmission?ALARIA
Retractable spiny proboscis in adult, multilayered egg?Acanthocephala/thorny head worm of swine
Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus from what category?Acanthocephala/thorny head worm of swine
Arthropod IH?Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus
Swine dh?Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus

Nematodes general

Question Answer
What is their "skin" like?They have a tegument w/ 2 layers- outer cuticle & inner hypodermis
What are their muscles like?They have 2 muscle types:
(1) unspecialized, somatic, longitudinal mm
(2) adaptable, specialized mm
Describe their digestive system/tractMouth, +/- buccal capsule, muscular esophagus, intestine, rectum, anus
How can you sex a nematode?Male has a little curve at the end of his tail, females do not but are larger
What is their lifecycle like?2 diff lifecycles:
(1) Direct- DH eats infective stage (L3!!)
(2) Indirect- DH produces egg → larvae → microfilariae. Micro is ingested by IH (earthworm, insect, whatever). Infective stage develops in IH. DH eat IH, or IH bites DH & transmits infective stage
What are the life stages of nematodes? What are they doing?Egg → L1-3 (in IH) → rest of L stages & adult in DH. L1-3 can be free living or in IH. L3 is infective stage (except ascarids, then it's L2 (egg) )
What is Oviparous? Who does this? Why would you do this?Means they have unembryonated eggs. This is the case for ascarids & hookworms. Means eggs are very resistant to enviro.

Ascarids/Roundworms ("intestinal roundworms")

Question Answer
What is the infective stage of ascarids?Ingestion of infective eggs, stage 3!
Once the infective stage is consumed, how do the larvae migrate?Hepato-tracheal migration
Clinical signs of ascarid infection are? (Resp system? GI? Skin? Abdominal cavity? Overall?)Verminous pneumonia (summer colds), Enteritis, Reduced growth, Dull hair coat, dry skin, Distended abdomen, Peritonitis, Aberrant migration results in CNS signs & Suppurative nephritis.
Aberrant migration of ascarids results in? (Clinical signs)CNS signs & Suppurative nephritis.
Cerebrospinal nematodiasis?BAYLISASCARIS PROCYONIS


Question Answer
Affects who?Piggies
What do the roundworms look like as adults?Large, stout, pinkish white to cream colored
What do the eggs of A. suum look like? Where are they usually found?Eggs- brownish yellow, thick shelled (very resistant in environment). Usually found in soil, or stuck to mammary skin of sow
Is A. suum zoonotic?Yes
How is the DH infected?Direct (ingestion of infective eggs) [hepatotracheal migration]
How is the liver affected?"MILK SPOTS" are areas of inflammation & healing fibrosis due to migration (hepatotacheal )
What is thumps?Cough caused by A. suum infxn
Clinical signs?Milk spots on liver, verminous pneumonia, peritonitis, cough (thumps), edema, emphysema, diarrhea, death.
RememberHumans drinking pig liver milk are gonna get thumped (humans=zoonotic. pig=sp affected. milk=milk spots. thumps=cough)

Parascaris equorum (equine roundworm)

Question Answer
Dx?Eggs in feces or presence of worms at necropsy
Tx?Deworm mare before foaling & deworm foals every 6-8 weeks from 8wks old until 1 year old
Transmission?Eating grass or soil contaminated w/ eggs containing L3 stage → NOT zoonotic, NO transplacental (vertical) transmission & NO transmammary (milk) transmission
Life Cycle?Direct Life Cycle!! unembryonated eggs, embryonate to L3 in environment, L3 are ingested by DH, larvae released in sm. intestine, burrow into walls & enter liver by portal vein – larvae undergo larvae enter hepatic vein & carried to heart & then pulmonary capillaries = hepato-tracheal migration, larvae molt in lungs, larvae travel up tracheobronchial tree in mucus & are swallowed, final molt & maturation in small intestine of the horse
What does the Egg look like?Thick-walled, spherical eggs w/ rough outer surface, sticky shell covering (can stick to mare’s teats & be ingested by foals), 90-100 micro meters diameter
What do adults look like?3 lips, large, heavy bodied worms (female larger than male) (adults are found in SI)
What is unique about P. equorum?Has a prepatent period: 80-83 days. Migration of larvae from liver to blood to lungs & back up trachea to GI tract = hepato-tracheal migration. Causes liver & lung damage
What are the Clinical Signs?Foals may exhibit mucopurulent nasal discharge & cough known as “summer colds” = verminous pneumonia , enteritis, ↓ growth, dull hair coat, leathery skin, diarrhea, can cause colic +/- SI rupture!, symptoms worse in foals, may be subclinical in adults


Question Answer
Affects who?Rumis
What does the adult of T. vitulorum look like?Large, stout, 3 lips
Where is T. vitulorum, geographically?Found in tropical & subtropical areas
What is the lifecycle of T. vitulorum?Direct, DH eats eggs
How does T. vitulorum migrate?DEPENDS ON AGE OF DH
(1) Calves <4mo = hepatotracheal migration.
(2) Calves >4mo = somatic migration
Prognosis of T. vitulorum infection?Natural expulsion & self-cure
Transmission of T. vitulorum?Transplacental & transmammary!
Pathology/clinical signs of T. vitulorum?Verminous pneumonia, Diarrhea, Enteritis, Intestinal obstruction & Perforation.
Remember3 rumi's traveled to the tropics on a 3-lipped TRANSport(they rode on boobs & placentas). They found out when they got there that their age mattered, & only the bodies of the 4mo (RUMI HAS 4 STOMACHS) got through, whereas the younger 1s got punched in the liver & ass & got sent back.
Is T. vitulorum zoonotic?No. rumis are too different from people, unlikes pigs, cats, & dogs


Question Answer
T. canis affects who?Doggies
How do adults of T. canis look?HAVE Lateral cervical alae- wings present on anterior end
What do the eggs of T. canis look like?They are round w/ thick, finely pitted shells
How is T. canis transmitted?TRANSPLACENTAL, transmammary rare
Lifecycle of T. canis?(Can be transplacental) Direct, ingestion of eggs → IS A PARATENIC HOST, RODENTS
How does T. canis migrate?DEPENDS ON AGE. <3mo=hepatotracheal. >3mo=somatic
Is T. canis zoonotic?Yes
Clinical signs?DOGS= Abdominal discomfort, Pot belly appearance, Straddled walk, Intestinal obstruction, CNS signs, Retinal lesions (rare) & Death. HUMANS= visceral & ocular migrans
RememberDog isnt your best friend when it puts worms into your eyes & organs. But how can you resist an adorable 3 month old puppy? When the worms stop going from a rat, through its liver & into its body, that's how. It's not the puppy’s fault it was infected before it was even born! If it dies, the winged worm will fly out w/ the puppy, laying its pitted-moon eggs in the sky


Question Answer
Affects who?Kitties
What does the T. cati adult look like?Large striated cervical alae (arrowhead shaped)
What does the egg of T. cati look like?Egg-pitted but smaller than T. canis
What is the lifecycle of T. cati?Can be direct by ingestion of eggs, OR PARATENIC HOST=RODENT. (Also transmammary)
Transmission of T. cati?TRANSMAMMARY (opposite of dog's transplacental, of course. Bc cat)
Is T. cati zoonotic?Yes
Clinical signs of T. cati?CATS= Diarrhea, Unthrifty appearance & pot belly. HUMANS= visceral & ocular migrans
REMEMBERI'm going to think of Focker milking a cat, & he gets it in his eyes & into his organs, because the worms FLY(wings) out like ARROWS & will also hit some yummy rats for the cat before going to the moon (pitted)


Question Answer
Affects who?Cats & dogs
What does the adult look like?Has narrow cervical alae
What do eggs of T. leonina look like?Ovalish w/ smooth outside & bumpy inside
Lifecycle?Ingestion of egg OR paratenic host (rodent)
Migration?NO MIGRATION!!!! Hatch in intestine, mature in wall of intestine, & re-enter lumen
REMEMBERLEONA really loved shit, didnt want to deal w/ livers & all that, unless it was feeding rat livers to her cats & dogs. She might have appeared smooth to the outside world, but she was bumpy on the inside


Question Answer
Affects who?RACCOON ROUNDWORM. Can reach maturity in dogs tho.
Lifecycle?Eat eggs or paratenic host
Migration?NO. Hatch in intestine, mature in wall of intestine, & re-enter lumen
Clinical signs?IN HUMANS: Humans- Visceral larva migrans & cerebrospinal nematodiasis
REMEMBERA raccoon at your bay is scary, it only gives a shit (intestine mature) about driving people INSANE(cerebrospinal nematodiasis)

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