Parasit - Lab Quiz 8-1

drraythe's version from 2015-08-31 04:15


Question Answer
What kinda life cycle do spiruroids have?Indirect
What is the usual IH for spiruroids?Arthropods (flies &such)
What do the eggs of spiruroids look like?Paperclips
ZOONOTICS?Thelazia californiensis, Dracunculus medinensis
How to tell diff between a habronema & draschia adultDraschia has funnel shaped buccal capsule & causes nodules in the stomach,
habronema has a black H inbetween its lips!
Smallest ovoviviparous egg?Spirocerca lupi
Reportable in humansDracunculus
Which is larviparous/ viviparous?Dracunculus

Thelazia lacrymalis

Question Answer
Aka?Horse eye worm
DH?HORSE (reported in cattle & K9)
IH?Musca autumnalis (FACE FLY) (EYE love autumn)
Where do adult T. lacrymalis like to live?Conjunctival sac, lacrimal duct
What kinda eggs?Ovoviviparous (aka embryonated) but they hatch in the uterus
Describe the lifecycle of T. lacrymalisOvoviviparous eggs → L1 picked up by face fly Musca autumnalis when it feeds on secretions around eyes → L3 develop in fly → deposited around eye when fly feeds
What is the pathology caused by T. lacrymalis?Keratitis, ulceration & opacity of cornea
Do can you dx T. lacrymalis?See L1 in lacrimal secretions, see parasite on eye surface or conjunctiva
RememberI'd cry too if I saw 'the-lazi' worms & flies crawling on my horse's eyes

Thelazia californiensis

Question Answer
Aka?Dog eye worm
DH?DOG (also seen in cat, sheep, deer & humans)
LocationConjunctival sac, lacrimal duct (same as T. lacrymalis in horses)
IH?Fannia canicularis, Fannia benjamini (latrine fly/ fruit fly)
Pathogenesis of T. californiensis?Lacrimation, photophobia, conjunctivitis, enucleation, corneal ulcer
Dx?See L1 in lacrimal secretions, see parasite on eye surface or conjunctiva (same as horse w/ thelazia lacrymalis)
Describe the lifecycle of T. californiensis(Same as T. lacrymalis in horse) ovoviviparous eggs → L1 picked up by Fannia canicularis, Fannia benjamini (latrine fly/ fruit fly) when they feed on eye secretions → L3 develop in fly → deposited around eye when fly feeds
RememberIf I lived in the 'the-lazi' state of California, w/ all those fruits, I'd want to get dog worms in my eye so I couldn't see too


Question Answer
Aka?Horse stomach worm
DH?Horse, donkey, mule
Where does the adult habronema like to live?Stomach & cecum
How would you describe the adults/ identifying structures?Cylindrical buccal capsule w/ 2 lateral lips/ pseudolabia
What kinda eggs? Describe themOvoviviparous (embryonated), long (hot dog shaped), thin-shelled
IH?M. domestica & Stomoxys (house &stable)
describe the lifecycle of habronemaAdult in stomach/cecum lays ovoviviparous eggs → eggs hatch in intestine → L1 ingested by maggot(in poo) of M. domestica(housefly) & Stomoxys(stable fly) → L3 at emergence of fly pupa → L3 migrate to fly mouthparts → L3 escape when fly feeds around mouth, lip, wound
What are the diff routes of transmission of the L3 larvae to the horse? What are the results of each transmission? (4)(1) Fly eaten → L3 develop in stomach to adults
(2) "Cutaneous habronemiasis" → deposition of L3 into wound, develop in skin, DO NOT REACH ADULTHOOD
(3) "Ocular habronemiasis" → fly deposits L3 in eye. DO NOT REACH ADULTHOOD
(4) "Pulmonary habronemiasis" is when L3 are in blood → travel to lung & develop. DO NOT REACH ADULTHOOD
What is the pathogenesis in the horse caused by the adult habronema?Heavy infections can lead to chronic gastritis & ulceration
Pulmonary habronemiasis results in what pathogenesis?Nodules in bronchioles, where the larvae encyst & calcify
Cutaneous habronemiasis results in what pathogenesis?Cutaneous lesions, "Swamp cancer", "Summer sores" which are basically granulomatous rxn, necrosis, calcified larvae. Pruritus, secondary infections, & "Proud flesh" which is excess granulation tissue
Ocular habronemiasis results in what pathogenesis?A wart-like lesion
How might you dx habronema?Fecal flotation, gastric lavage, biopsy
How might you try to control habronema?Fly control, stack feces to destroy larvae
RememberIf a horse eats habanero pepper hot dogs, its belly will be very upset & sores will form on its lips. But so would its eyes & skin & lungs if the peppers got in any of those places. Not even house or stable flies will eat a pepper like that.


Question Answer
DHHorse, donkey, mule
IHMusca domestica (housefly)
Where do adult draschia like to live?In nodules in the stomach wall
How can you ID the adult, based on body structures? (How to differentiate from habronema?)Funnel shaped buccal capsule (unlike habronema)
What are the eggs like for draschia? How are they different from habronema eggs?Ovoviviparous eggs.... they "look" the same *BUT* draschia eggs 1/2 the size of habronema eggs
What is the life cycle like for draschia?Same lifecycle as habronema!
How is the pathogenesis of draschia different from habronema?Draschia forms NODULES in the gastric mucosa (habanero burns stomach, Dracula shoves stuff in & makes it much worse!) (Both habanero & Dracula get proud flesh)
Why is draschia difficult to TX?They live in the nodules which makes it hard for meds to get at them
Dx draschia?Fecal flotation, gastric lavage, biopsy
RememberDraschia is opposite Dracula....instead of sucking out, they go in & make themselves at home(domestic)! That burns like a habanero pepper


Question Answer
DH?Dog & cat
IH?Grasshopper, cricket, beetles, cockroach
PH?Frog, snake, rodent, lizard, hedgehog
Where do adult physaloptera live?Stomach & duodenum
What do adult physaloptera look like?Looks like ascarid, except 2 large pseudolabia (fake lips) w/ teeth, & the female has many ovaries & uteri & a cuticular collar (physaloptera affects dogs & cats, who wear collars!)
What does physaloptera eat?May suck blood!
What kinda eggs?Ovoviviparous eggs
How can you identify a physaloptera adult?Mouth flanked by pseudolabia & surrounded by cuticular collar
Describe the lifecycle of physalopteraAdults lay ovoviviparous eggs in stomach/duodenum → eggs in feces → IH ingest L1 → L1 to L3 in IH → ingested by DH or PH
What are the clinical signs/pathogenesis of physaloptera?They are firmly attached to GI mucosa (inflammation!) → create wounds which bleed (dark, tarry stool aka melena) also vomiting (CAN BE SEEN IN VOMIT), anorexia, weight loss
How can you dx physaloptera?Eggs or adults in vomit or feces (sedimentation), do a Gastroscopy & see pseudo-granuloma, or CBC/Chem & see anemia, eosinophilia
What are the two types of physaloptera? How can you differentiate?P. praeputialis & P. rara. (praeputialis has a circular cuticle (flap) covering post. end)
RememberA ptera-dactyl will eat cats & dogs, but doesnt want to eat cockroaches or grasshoppers! Bugs upset its stomach or cause it to bleed w/ their chitinous exoskeletons, & then it will need to wear a collar

Spirocerca lupi

Question Answer
DHDog, wild felids & canids
IHDung beetle (lump of shit in your throat)
PHAmphibian, reptiles, wild birds, hedgehog, mice, rabbits
Where would you find the adult?In nodules in stomach, aorta, esophagus
What do the adults look like?Pink/red color worms, often coiled
What do the eggs look like, what type are they?Thick shell, smallest of embryonated ova (ovoviviparous) & paperclip shaped
Describe the lifecycle of S. lupiEggs in feces → embryonated egg eaten by dung beetle → L3 develops in dung beetle → PH or DH eats beetle → if DH, larvae migrate in gastric & gastroepiploic aa → aorta for 3wk → develop to adults → migrate to the walls of esophagus & stomach (2.5 mo) (L3 might encyst in esophagus) (aorta then esophagus!)
Pathogenesis caused by S. lupi?Hemorrhage, inflammation, necrosis, abscesses, stenotic vessels, ADULTS cause nodules in esophagus, stomach, & aorta → Vomiting, emaciation, difficulty swallowing, spondylitis (inflammation of vertebrae), can cause NEOPLASIA
How can S lupi cause sudden death?Rupture of aorta
How does S lupi relate to neoplasia?S lupi encysts in esophagus, cause a GRANULOMA. Granuloma can develop into a SARCOMA (could be fibrosarcoma, if osteosarcoma → bone prolif → hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy (HPO) & thickening of long bones
Explain clinical signs related to the parasite in the esophagusVomiting, hemorrhage or rupture of esophagus, megaesophagus
Dx of S lupi?Sedimentation technique, radiographs, endoscopic exam, FLOTAC (flotation +PCR) –eggs
What is required for eggs to end up in feces to be ingested by dung beetle?Eggs not passed in feces unless granuloma connects to lumen of esophagus or stomach
RememberBasically remember path. granulomas, cancer, TINY eggs, dung beetle
How does bone growth relate to S lupi infections?Nodular Growth in thoracic cavity stim. Vagus n - stim. Periosteum proliferation-thoracic vert, digits, long bones.

Dracunculus (aka guinea worm)

Question Answer
Where do adult dracunculus like to live/where to you find them?Find them erupting from the skin
What are the two types of dracunculus? What are the DHs for each one?(1) D. insignis- raccoon, dog, cat
(2) D. medinensis- human
IHCopepod (waterflea)
How would you describe the larvae?Have long thin tails
PHParatenic host- Frogs (Xenopus & Rana) & fish (rainbow trout, white sucker). For frogs, larvae can persist through metamorphosis of tadpole into frog
Important to know about this parasite?REPORTABLE in humans
What kinda eggs?NONE, is larviparous/viviparous
Describe the lifecycle of dracunculusWhen female is fertilized, her anus & vulva atrophy & an ulcer forms on the host's skin. When water contacts ulcer, female projects body & prolapses a length of uterus, which bursts & releases larvae (uterus can be forced through mouth)- → in the water, L1 larvae is ingested by IH (water fleas/copepods) → develop into L3s in IH → DH ingests IH in water
What happens w/ "emergent" adult worms?Migration to skin producing allergic reaction, blister
What happens w/ "non-emergent" adult worms?Calcification of worm → chronic arthritis, paraplegia, also found in heart & urogenital system
How do you tx dracunculus?Surgical excision or wetting of ulcer & winding of female on stick (1 turn per day for 2-3 weeks) WIND-A-WORM
How can you control draconculusWater straw filters
Nodule where?SQ NODULE!!!