See L1 in lacrimal secretions, see parasite on eye surface or conjunctiva (same as horse w/ thelazia lacrymalis)
Describe the lifecycle of T. californiensis
(Same as T. lacrymalis in horse) ovoviviparous eggs → L1 picked up by Fannia canicularis, Fannia benjamini (latrine fly/ fruit fly) when they feed on eye secretions → L3 develop in fly → deposited around eye when fly feeds
If I lived in the 'the-lazi' state of California, w/ all those fruits, I'd want to get dog worms in my eye so I couldn't see too
Ovoviviparous (embryonated), long (hot dog shaped), thin-shelled
M. domestica & Stomoxys (house &stable)
describe the lifecycle of habronema
Adult in stomach/cecum lays ovoviviparous eggs → eggs hatch in intestine → L1 ingested by maggot(in poo) of M. domestica(housefly) & Stomoxys(stable fly) → L3 at emergence of fly pupa → L3 migrate to fly mouthparts → L3 escape when fly feeds around mouth, lip, wound
What are the diff routes of transmission of the L3 larvae to the horse? What are the results of each transmission? (4)
(1) Fly eaten → L3 develop in stomach to adults (2) "Cutaneous habronemiasis" → deposition of L3 into wound, develop in skin, DO NOT REACH ADULTHOOD (3) "Ocular habronemiasis" → fly deposits L3 in eye. DO NOT REACH ADULTHOOD (4) "Pulmonary habronemiasis" is when L3 are in blood → travel to lung & develop. DO NOT REACH ADULTHOOD
What is the pathogenesis in the horse caused by the adult habronema?
Heavy infections can lead to chronic gastritis & ulceration
Pulmonary habronemiasis results in what pathogenesis?
Nodules in bronchioles, where the larvae encyst & calcify
Cutaneous habronemiasis results in what pathogenesis?
Cutaneous lesions, "Swamp cancer", "Summer sores" which are basically granulomatous rxn, necrosis, calcified larvae. Pruritus, secondary infections, & "Proud flesh" which is excess granulation tissue
Ocular habronemiasis results in what pathogenesis?
A wart-like lesion
How might you dx habronema?
Fecal flotation, gastric lavage, biopsy
How might you try to control habronema?
Fly control, stack feces to destroy larvae
If a horse eats habanero pepper hot dogs, its belly will be very upset & sores will form on its lips. But so would its eyes & skin & lungs if the peppers got in any of those places. Not even house or stable flies will eat a pepper like that.
Looks like ascarid, except 2 large pseudolabia (fake lips) w/ teeth, & the female has many ovaries & uteri & a cuticular collar (physaloptera affects dogs & cats, who wear collars!)
What does physaloptera eat?
May suck blood!
What kinda eggs?
How can you identify a physaloptera adult?
Mouth flanked by pseudolabia & surrounded by cuticular collar
Describe the lifecycle of physaloptera
Adults lay ovoviviparous eggs in stomach/duodenum → eggs in feces → IH ingest L1 → L1 to L3 in IH → ingested by DH or PH
What are the clinical signs/pathogenesis of physaloptera?
They are firmly attached to GI mucosa (inflammation!) → create wounds which bleed (dark, tarry stool aka melena) also vomiting (CAN BE SEEN IN VOMIT), anorexia, weight loss
How can you dx physaloptera?
Eggs or adults in vomit or feces (sedimentation), do a Gastroscopy & see pseudo-granuloma, or CBC/Chem & see anemia, eosinophilia
What are the two types of physaloptera? How can you differentiate?
P. praeputialis & P. rara. (praeputialis has a circular cuticle (flap) covering post. end)
A ptera-dactyl will eat cats & dogs, but doesnt want to eat cockroaches or grasshoppers! Bugs upset its stomach or cause it to bleed w/ their chitinous exoskeletons, & then it will need to wear a collar
Thick shell, smallest of embryonated ova (ovoviviparous) & paperclip shaped
Describe the lifecycle of S. lupi
Eggs in feces → embryonated egg eaten by dung beetle → L3 develops in dung beetle → PH or DH eats beetle → if DH, larvae migrate in gastric & gastroepiploic aa → aorta for 3wk → develop to adults → migrate to the walls of esophagus & stomach (2.5 mo) (L3 might encyst in esophagus) (aorta then esophagus!)
Pathogenesis caused by S. lupi?
Hemorrhage, inflammation, necrosis, abscesses, stenotic vessels, ADULTS cause nodules in esophagus, stomach, & aorta → Vomiting, emaciation, difficulty swallowing, spondylitis (inflammation of vertebrae), can cause NEOPLASIA
How can S lupi cause sudden death?
Rupture of aorta
How does S lupi relate to neoplasia?
S lupi encysts in esophagus, cause a GRANULOMA. Granuloma can develop into a SARCOMA (could be fibrosarcoma, if osteosarcoma → bone prolif → hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy (HPO) & thickening of long bones
Explain clinical signs related to the parasite in the esophagus
Vomiting, hemorrhage or rupture of esophagus, megaesophagus
Where do adult dracunculus like to live/where to you find them?
Find them erupting from the skin
What are the two types of dracunculus? What are the DHs for each one?
(1) D. insignis- raccoon, dog, cat (2) D. medinensis- human
How would you describe the larvae?
Have long thin tails
Paratenic host- Frogs (Xenopus & Rana) & fish (rainbow trout, white sucker). For frogs, larvae can persist through metamorphosis of tadpole into frog
Important to know about this parasite?
REPORTABLE in humans
What kinda eggs?
NONE, is larviparous/viviparous
Describe the lifecycle of dracunculus
When female is fertilized, her anus & vulva atrophy & an ulcer forms on the host's skin. When water contacts ulcer, female projects body & prolapses a length of uterus, which bursts & releases larvae (uterus can be forced through mouth)- → in the water, L1 larvae is ingested by IH (water fleas/copepods) → develop into L3s in IH → DH ingests IH in water
What happens w/ "emergent" adult worms?
Migration to skin producing allergic reaction, blister
What happens w/ "non-emergent" adult worms?
Calcification of worm → chronic arthritis, paraplegia, also found in heart & urogenital system
How do you tx dracunculus?
Surgical excision or wetting of ulcer & winding of female on stick (1 turn per day for 2-3 weeks) WIND-A-WORM