Not usually in a direct smear but you can find them on the fecal float. They are easy to miss and hard to find!
which end of the trichuris/whipworm is anterior? which end is posterior?
ANTERIOR (front/mouth) is the THIN END. posterior (butt) is the thick end (Whipworms got junk in the trunk)
what is the esophagus of the trichuris/whipworm like? (what is it called, what is it made of?)
stichosome esophagus ("capillary tube" shaped, surrounded by single file column of glands cells (called stichocytes)
what are stichocytes?
gland cells surrounding the capillary-tube like esophagus (stichosome esophagus) of the trichuris/whipworm
Describe the egg of the trichuris/whipworm (shape? color? features? is it embryonated or unembryonated? how resistant is it?)
LEMON SHAPED, yellow-brown color, have bipolar "plugs" on either side (what make it look like a lemon), it is unembryonated (aka oviparous) and very resistant in the enviro.
what is oviparous? what is ovoviviparous? what is viviparous? Which one of these is trichuris/whipworm?
**this is what stage the egg is at when it is laid by the female. (1) Oviparous is when the egg is UNembryonated. This is what whipworms/trichuris is. (2) ovoviviparous is when the egg IS embryonated, as in there is a larvae inside of it, and no sperm is needed (this is Strongyloides aka:Threadworms). (3) Viviparous (aka: larviparous) is when the female just lays a larvae, no egg. (this is Trichinella spiralis)
is trichuris a direct or indirect lifecycle? describe
DIRECT life cycle. Adults in cecum/colon lay unembryonated (oviparous) eggs. Eggs are pooped out. In poop they embryonate and then are eggs with larvae in them. Host eats poop. larvae reach colon/cecum and become adults. Yay.
where do adult trichuris/whipworms like to hang out?
how do trichuris/whipworms get their nutrition?
describe the clinical presentation of a animal with a mild whipworm infection vs a severe infection
Mild- no symptoms. Severe- abdominal pain, loss of appetite, bloody diarrhea, intestinal inflammation
what dz can a severe trichuris infection seem like, and why?
can look like ADDISONS (hypoadrenocorticism) because of abnormal Na+ and K+ values, as well as dehydration crises
Trichuris vulpis affects who?
DOGS AND FOXES. This is ALSO ZOONOTIC, and can result in anemia, visceral larva migrans, and eosinophilia in humans. (Makes sense, dogs and foxes are close)
Trichuris campanula affects who? how common?
CATS. rare. (think grouped with T. serrata) (cats go camping with serrated knives)
Trichuris serrata affects who? how common?
CATS. rare. (think grouped with T. campanula) (cats go camping with serrated knives)
Trichuris discolor affects who? how common? how severe is it?
RUMNANTS. Often infected, but only occasionally ill. (I wouldn't drink off-color or discolored milk)
Trichuris suis affects who? how severe is it?
SWINE. can be a SEVERE problem in young pigs, and can cause catarrhal enteritis (diarrhea, anorexia, growth retardation)
which trichuris is zoonotic, and what is the effect on ppl?
Trichuris VULPIS. Results in anemia, visceral larva migrans, and eosinophilia in humans (Of course, the animal that humans are most around, dogs, carry it)
whipworm looks like needle and thread-- "STI(t)CHosome" Lemons with no baby inside to be harmed. "addison"al repairs make it ONE (L1) tough sucker
what do capillaria aerophila eggs look like? where are they found?
Eggs-greenish tinge with striated shell, found in feces or tracheal mucus
what is the lifecycle of capillaria aerophila like? is it direct or indirect? describe it.
Can be direct (eggs in poo, poo gets eaten) OR can have a facultative host (earthworm). Adults live in trachea/bronchi, they lay eggs, the eggs get coughed up and swallowed, the eggs come out the poo, poo is eaten.
where do adult capillaria aerophila like to live?
Trachea, bronchi, rarely nasal cavities and frontal sinus
what are the symptoms of C. aerophila in cats and dogs?
slight cough and fever
what are the symptoms of C. aerophila in foxes?
coughing, weakness, rattling, wheezing respiration, poor growth, unthrifty fur, death due to bronchopneumonia (worse than in cats and dogs)
in what situation would a DH serve as an IH for trichinella?
cannibalism (pigs will eat each other)
is trichinella zoonotic?
how would you "sex" a trichinella spiralis?
males dont have spicules
what kind of eggs does the female lay?
LARVIPAROUS-- NO EGG!!
where do adult trichinella spiralis like to live?
mucosa of sm intestine
where do larvae of trichinella spiralis like to live?
encysted in skele mm (why you shouldnt eat undercooked pork)
what is viviparous?
AKA larviparous --> Female does not lay eggs but gives birth to larva or prelarva
describe the lifecycle of trichinella spiralis
L1 birthed by momma trichinella--> L1 encysts in skele mm--> DH eats infected skele mm--> digestive enzymes free encysted L1s-->L1s invade digestive mucosa--> mature in 2 days, then they mate and the males die--> females(viviparous) give birth to pre-larvae--> prelarvae enter lymphatics and bloodstream--> go to mm and encyst and develop into L1 (infective)
what is the infective stage of trichinella spiralis?
L1 in skele mm!!
what are the clinical signs of trichinella spiralis in swine?
what are the clinical signs of trichinella spiralis in people?
Humans- diarrhea, fever, stiffness and pain in muscles, dyspnea, peri-orbital and facial swelling, death if heavy infection in diaphragm
how do you dx trichinella spiralis?
how can you help control the spread of trichinella spiralis?
Dock swine tails to avoid cannibalism, do not feed raw garbage, do not allow animal carcasses to decompose on premises, cook pork thoroughly and freeze