Parasit Lab quiz 7-1

susopisa's version from 2016-05-13 14:16


Question Answer
Infective stage?L1
Will you find eggs in the feces?Not usually in a direct smear but you can find them on the fecal float. They are easy to miss and hard to find!
which end of the trichuris/whipworm is anterior? which end is posterior?ANTERIOR (front/mouth) is the THIN END. posterior (butt) is the thick end (Whipworms got junk in the trunk)
what is the esophagus of the trichuris/whipworm like? (what is it called, what is it made of?)stichosome esophagus ("capillary tube" shaped, surrounded by single file column of glands cells (called stichocytes)
what are stichocytes?gland cells surrounding the capillary-tube like esophagus (stichosome esophagus) of the trichuris/whipworm
Describe the egg of the trichuris/whipworm (shape? color? features? is it embryonated or unembryonated? how resistant is it?)LEMON SHAPED, yellow-brown color, have bipolar "plugs" on either side (what make it look like a lemon), it is unembryonated (aka oviparous) and very resistant in the enviro.
what is oviparous? what is ovoviviparous? what is viviparous? Which one of these is trichuris/whipworm?**this is what stage the egg is at when it is laid by the female.
(1) Oviparous is when the egg is UNembryonated. This is what whipworms/trichuris is.
(2) ovoviviparous is when the egg IS embryonated, as in there is a larvae inside of it, and no sperm is needed (this is Strongyloides aka:Threadworms).
(3) Viviparous (aka: larviparous) is when the female just lays a larvae, no egg. (this is Trichinella spiralis)
is trichuris a direct or indirect lifecycle? describeDIRECT life cycle. Adults in cecum/colon lay unembryonated (oviparous) eggs. Eggs are pooped out. In poop they embryonate and then are eggs with larvae in them. Host eats poop. larvae reach colon/cecum and become adults. Yay.
where do adult trichuris/whipworms like to hang out?cecum/colon
how do trichuris/whipworms get their nutrition?blood feeders
describe the clinical presentation of a animal with a mild whipworm infection vs a severe infectionMild- no symptoms. Severe- abdominal pain, loss of appetite, bloody diarrhea, intestinal inflammation
what dz can a severe trichuris infection seem like, and why?can look like ADDISONS (hypoadrenocorticism) because of abnormal Na+ and K+ values, as well as dehydration crises
Trichuris vulpis affects who?DOGS AND FOXES. This is ALSO ZOONOTIC, and can result in anemia, visceral larva migrans, and eosinophilia in humans. (Makes sense, dogs and foxes are close)
Trichuris campanula affects who? how common?CATS. rare. (think grouped with T. serrata) (cats go camping with serrated knives)
Trichuris serrata affects who? how common?CATS. rare. (think grouped with T. campanula) (cats go camping with serrated knives)
Trichuris discolor affects who? how common? how severe is it?RUMNANTS. Often infected, but only occasionally ill. (I wouldn't drink off-color or discolored milk)
Trichuris suis affects who? how severe is it?SWINE. can be a SEVERE problem in young pigs, and can cause catarrhal enteritis (diarrhea, anorexia, growth retardation)
which trichuris is zoonotic, and what is the effect on ppl?Trichuris VULPIS. Results in anemia, visceral larva migrans, and eosinophilia in humans (Of course, the animal that humans are most around, dogs, carry it)
rememberwhipworm looks like needle and thread-- "STI(t)CHosome" Lemons with no baby inside to be harmed. "addison"al repairs make it ONE (L1) tough sucker

Capillaria (in the order trichurida, like trichuris, but different family, Capillariidae)

Question Answer
what kind of esophagus do capillaria have?strichosome esophagus (SAME AS TRICHURIS) "capillary tube" shaped, surrounded by single file column of glands cells (called stichocytes) (capillary tube is straight)
describe the eggs of capillaria (in general, as a family)- color? shape? distinct features?yellow/brown, BARREL shaped (trichuris is lemon shaped) and also has bipolar "plugs" but they are slightly asymmetrical (capillary tube with a kink in the ed) (aerophila showing shell abberations)
Will you find eggs in fecesYES!
will you find Capillaria eggs in urine?Only Capillaria pearsonema , C. feliscati & C. plica will show in urine
What worm other than Capillaria can you find eggs in urineDioctophymia --> large kidney worm. destorys kidney

Capillaria aerophila

Question Answer
what TYPE of egg?ovaparous (unembryonated)
Capillaria aerophila has what hosts?dogs, cats, foxes, and coyotes
is capillaria aerophila zoonotic?YES
what do capillaria aerophila eggs look like? where are they found?Eggs-greenish tinge with striated shell, found in feces or tracheal mucus
what is the lifecycle of capillaria aerophila like? is it direct or indirect? describe it.Can be direct (eggs in poo, poo gets eaten) OR can have a facultative host (earthworm). Adults live in trachea/bronchi, they lay eggs, the eggs get coughed up and swallowed, the eggs come out the poo, poo is eaten.
where do adult capillaria aerophila like to live?Trachea, bronchi, rarely nasal cavities and frontal sinus
what are the symptoms of C. aerophila in cats and dogs?slight cough and fever
what are the symptoms of C. aerophila in foxes?coughing, weakness, rattling, wheezing respiration, poor growth, unthrifty fur, death due to bronchopneumonia (worse than in cats and dogs)
what are the symptoms of C. aerophila in humans?Humans- pulmonary capillariasis (coughing, bronchitis, mucoid or blood tinged sputum, fever, dyspnea, eosinophilia)
how would you dx a capillaria aerophila infection?Eggs in feces, sputum, or nasal discharge
how can you control transmission of capillaria aerophila?Keep animal off shaded and poorly drained areas, use wire mesh for floors
remembercapillary tube might seem harmless, but if it is angry or gangs up with a worm it can pop a cap in a human. This one loves air and HATES foxes too

Urinary capillariasis (C. plica and C. feliscati)

Question Answer
where do of the adults of capillaria Plica and Feliscati live?in bladder and pelvis of kidney
what do the eggs of C plica and C feliscati look like?(color? shape? distinct features?) where can you find them?colorless to yellow, bipolar plugs, in urine (C. plica) (C. feliscati)
what TYPE of egg?ovaparous (unembryonated)
describe the lifecycle of C plica/ C feliscatioviparous egg passed in urine--> L1 developed in egg after being passed--> ingested by earthworm (PARATENIC HOST)--> DH eats worm
what affect do C plica/C feliscati have on foxes, if a fox were to eat a worm?growth impairment
what are symptoms C plica/C feliscati have on dogs/cats? asymptomatic, or cystitis (inflammation of bladder wall), difficulty when urinating
how do you dx C plica or C feliscati?eggs in urine
who is the host for C. plica?dogs
who is the host for C. feliscati?cats
rememberplicating and scat both have to do with the intestines.....and they have nothing to do with intestines. Go figure. Like urine, they can have quite colorless eggs.

Nasal capillariasis (Capillaria boehmi)

Question Answer
who is the host for Capillaria boehmi?FOX and DOGS
what kinda symptoms would you see from a capillaria boehmi infection?could be asymptomatic, or could have nasal discharge and sneezing
what is the life cycle of Capillaria boehmi?WE DONT KNOW, LOL
describe the egg of Capillaria boehmithe surface is covered in pits, like a thimble
how would you dx Capillaria boehmi? how would you NOT dx?NASAL SWAB WOULD NOT WORK. Nasal WASHING would be positive though. Also eggs in feces
rememberbohemians look down their nose at you with their fox coat and their fancy little dogs, and their designed thimbles. But they are above a quick swab, they need a full wash to find the bath acceptable

Trichinella spiralis/ Trichina worm

Question Answer
who are hosts for trichinella spiralis?pigs, humans, rats, bears, cougars
in what situation would a DH serve as an IH for trichinella?cannibalism (pigs will eat each other)
is trichinella zoonotic?yes! REPORTABLE!!!
how would you "sex" a trichinella spiralis?males dont have spicules
what kind of eggs does the female lay?LARVIPAROUS-- NO EGG!!
where do adult trichinella spiralis like to live?mucosa of sm intestine
where do larvae of trichinella spiralis like to live?encysted in skele mm (why you shouldnt eat undercooked pork)
what is viviparous?AKA larviparous --> Female does not lay eggs but gives birth to larva or prelarva
describe the lifecycle of trichinella spiralisL1 birthed by momma trichinella--> L1 encysts in skele mm--> DH eats infected skele mm--> digestive enzymes free encysted L1s-->L1s invade digestive mucosa--> mature in 2 days, then they mate and the males die--> females(viviparous) give birth to pre-larvae--> prelarvae enter lymphatics and bloodstream--> go to mm and encyst and develop into L1 (infective)
what is the infective stage of trichinella spiralis?L1 in skele mm!!
what are the clinical signs of trichinella spiralis in swine?asymptomatic
what are the clinical signs of trichinella spiralis in people?Humans- diarrhea, fever, stiffness and pain in muscles, dyspnea, peri-orbital and facial swelling, death if heavy infection in diaphragm
how do you dx trichinella spiralis?serology
how can you help control the spread of trichinella spiralis?Dock swine tails to avoid cannibalism, do not feed raw garbage, do not allow animal carcasses to decompose on premises, cook pork thoroughly and freeze

Dioctophyma renale/ giant kidney worm

Question Answer
DH of dioctophyma renale(giant kidney worm)?primarily mink, dog, fox, wolf, cats, pigs, horses, cattle, humans
is Dioctophyma renale zoonotic?YES
what is the intermediate host of Dioctophyma renale?oligochaete annelid (class of worms. can be an earthworm, but also water worms in this class)
what are the paratenic hosts of dioctophyma renale?frogs, crayfish, fish (things in the water that eat worms)
Describe the eggs of dioctophyma renale (look like? how resistant? where are they laid and how do they get to the outside world?)Thick, pitted, barrel shape, yellow brown, bipolar plugs, very resistant, laid in kidney, passed in urine
what is notable about the adults of dioctophyma renale?LARGEST NEMATODE
is there a preferred place that dioctophyma renale likes to live?RIGHT kidney
describe the lifecycle of dioctophyma renaleeggs passed in urine-->L1 in egg--> ingested by IH (oligochaete annelid)--> develop into L3 in worm--> DH ingests worm or paratenic host(frog/crayfish/fish)
how does the worm affect the DH?Worms can destroy/calcify parenchyma of renal pelvis of kidney, may project into ureter, may cause uremia, exit the urethra, may cause peritonitis and adhesion
how do you dx dioctophyma renale?eggs in urine
HOW DO YOU TX dioctophyma renale?Remove worm surgically or nephrectomy, no anthelmintics are effective
how can you control the spread of dioctophyma renale?prevent ingestion of improperly cooked fish, frogs, and crayfish

Oxyuris equi/pinworms

Question Answer
DHhorse, donkey, mule
shape of esophagus? shape of tail?esophagus is bulb-shaped, tail is thin
where do adult oxyuris equi like to live?large intestine
how can you sex a oxyuris equi?males have pin-shaped spicules
infective stage of oxyuris?L3
what kinda lifecycle does ocyuris equi have?direct
what do the eggs look like?asymmetrical with one operculum at one end, unembryonated/oviparous
what kinda eggs does oxyuris equi have?unembryonated/oviparous
what is unique about the egg's passage/what happens to it?* Females cement eggs in masses to skin of anus (yellowish, grey fluid- cementing material), embryonate after 5 days
how harmful are the adults?adults are non-pathogenic
how does a severe infection present?inflammation and ulceration of small intestine (I assume larvae are doing this)
clinical signs of oxyuris infection? anal puritis and loss of hair at tail head, rat tail, hyperkeratosis, secondary bacterial infections, nervous, anorexic, loss in condition
how do you DX??Eggs on scotch tape test