Parasit - Lab Quiz 5

resabipa's version from 2016-10-07 04:35

Intro to trematodes (flukes)

Question Answer
DH of trematodes are usually?Mammals/birds
*How many IHs, & what are they?(1) Snails
(2) Invertebrates
Walk through their lifecycleEgg deposited in freshwater via feces → operculum opens → miracidium (ciliated) → penetrates snail → sporocyst (rediae) → cercariae → penetrate 2nd intermediate host → transform into metacercaria → consumed by definitive host → adult
Characteristic of eggs?Have operculum
*What is a miracidium?Ciliated stage which comes from the egg, which penetrates a snail (look at all my clia in the mirror. Vain little baby)
What is a Sporocyst?Comes after miracidium. Has germinal cells developed from snail, has mouth & digestive system
What is a Rediae?Comes after sporocyst has oral sucker, some flame cells, simple gut
*What is a cercaria?Free-swimming form which penetrates skin of DH/2nd IH
What is a Metacercariae?Encysted cercariae after shedding tails. Encysts on plants OR on animals (2nd IH) (meta means w/in something)
How do you generally detect trematode eggs?Fecal sedimentation (because eggs are generally large & heavy). Can also use ELISA
Can trematodes be zoonotic?YES


Question Answer
DH?Sheep & cattle (more pathogenic in sheep)
IH?Mud snails (Lymnea snails)
What is the Infective stage of F. hepatica?Encysted metacercariae on vegetation
What does the adult look like?Large, distinct "shoulders"
What is the egg like?Operculate, LARGE (like 140 microns)
Where does the young fluke live? Adult fluke?Young fluke lives in the liver. The adult fluke lives in the BILE DUCT.
Is F. hepatica zoonotic?Yes. From people eating raw infected plants (like watercress)
The severity (pathogenesis) of F. hepatica depends on what 3 things?(1) Stage of development
(2) Number of parasites in the liver
(3) Presence of black dz - Clostridium novyi
Ovine fasciolosis is broken into what 3 categories?Acute, subacute, & chronic
Ovine fasciolosis → dz caused by what happening? Concurrent problems?Larval flukes migrate through liver to cause damage. Can have concurrent "black dz" w/ clostridium. Cholangitis (inflammation of bile ducts), chronic type is most common & can get bottle jaw
Bovine fasciolosis → chronic form of dz has what problems?Can see encapsulated parasites in lungs... pipestem fibrosis
Unique migration of F. hepatica?(Under Bovine fasciolosis → chronic) can have TRANSPLACENTAL (not mammary)
How can you dx F. hepatica?Sedimentation/ ELISA

Fascioloides magna

Question Answer
DH?White-tailed deer & wild ruminants (elk, caribou)
Infective stage?Metacercariae
What happens in DH w/ F. magna?Mature in thin walled fibrous capsules in liver (ONLY IN DH. diff pathology for other hosts)
How would you dx F. magna?You could do a fecal sedimentation in ONLY DEER POOP. bc only deer really shed through feces.
Dead-end hosts of F. magna? What’s it like for them?Moose, sheep, cattle. They get acute dz. flukes reach liver but DON'T mature.

Paramphistomum cervi/ Rumen fluke (a caffeinated cow has AMP in her rumen)

Question Answer
IH?Water snail
Where do adult rumen flukes like to live? How damaging are they?Live in rumen & reticulum, relatively harmless
Where do immature rumen flukes like to live? What problems do they cause?Immature stage- in duodenum, duodenal erosions, edema, hemorrhage, diarrhea (too much amp in an immature kid will ulcerate their duodenum)
How do you dx?NOT fecal sedimentation, bc Eggs undeveloped when passed in feces (not diagnostic)

Dicrocoelium dendriticum (draco uses his magic to control ants)

Question Answer
Is Dicrocoelium zoonotic?Yes
DH?Humans, sheep, cattle, deer, rabbits
Where do adult dicrocoelium like to live in the DH?Located in bile ducts & gallbladder, sometimes in pancreatic duct
IH?(1) Snail
(2) Brown ants
What is the egg like?SMALL, dark brown, operculate (ants float)
Describe the lifecycleEgg → 1st IH (snail) → miracidium hatches in intestines → sporocyst → cercariae in mucus slime balls → vegetation → 2nd IH (ant) eats slime ball → metacercariae → altered behavior → DH → encyst in duodenum & migrate to bile ducts & liver
What is the effect of dicrocoelium on the liver?There isn't liver parenchyma migration, so, it isn't as pathologically severe (ants don't like the taste of liver)
Doesn’t cause clinical illness in who?Cattle or lambs
Dx?Fecal FLOAT (small eggs) & ELISA


Question Answer
What is a gynaecophoric canal?Separate sexes w/ small adult female laying permanently in groove (the canal) of the male (personally id find it shisty to lay in a mans canal all my life)
Zoonotic?Yes (Bird schistosomes & Heterobilharzia americana cause swimmer’s itch)
Where are adult schistosomes usually found?Mesenteric veins
Heterobilharzia americana DH?Raccoons, dogs, cats, bobcats, lynx, nutria, horses (as long as it's opposite sex, heteros will do just about anything)
Heterobilharzia americana IH?Snail
What is the infective stage of Heterobilharzia americana?Cercariae
What are some clinical signs/problems from Heterobilharzia americana?*Eggs induce granulomatous reaction. Also pipe stem fibrosis & liver failure
How would you dx heterobilharzia?*Dx: Eggs in feces, starry sky liver in ultrasound
MemorizeThe hetero-male said "SHIST" as he looked down & saw his legs covered in parasites. His starry-eyes outlook became a starry-livered outlook real fast, & packed his pipe-stem to calm down

Nanophyetus salmincola

Question Answer
IH(1) Snail (Oxytrema silicula)
(2) Salmonid fish
How harmful is nanophyetus?Non- pathogenic, but is a vector for Neorickettsia helminthoeca
Clinical signs/symptoms due to what, & are?Due to the NEORICKETTSIA! Hemorrhagic enteritis & lymphadenopathy, vomiting, diarrhea, fatal w/o treatment
Zoonotic?Yes, from eating incompletely cooked salmon
Dx?Fecal sedimentation
How does the fish get infected from the snail?Cercariae emerge from snail & penetrate skin of salmonid fish, encyst on tissues as metacercariae
MemorizeNano-sized fish carrying nano-sized bact will kill you in a nano2nd

Paragonimus kellicotti / lung fluke

Question Answer
IH(1) Snail (Pomatiopsis lapidaria)
(2) Crayfish
Describe eggsYellow & vase-shaped
Clinical signs?Lots of coughing
Where do adults like to live in DH?Lungs (encapsulated by fibrous cysts connected by fistulae to bronchioles)
Zoonotic?Yes, eating undercooked crawfish
Dx?Flotation or sedimentation of eggs in feces or sputum, Signet ring like lesions in lung radiographs
MemorizeGONE from the crawdad cookout I was, coughing up a lung


Question Answer
DHDogs, cats, foxes, mink
IH(1) Freshwater snail
(2) Frogs
Paratenic host?Frog, snake, mouse (ingest infected tadpole)
Where do adults like to live?In sm intestine
Life cycle?*Large unembryonated egg passed in feces → miracidium penetrates snail → cercariae penetrate skin of tadpole & transform into mesocercariae (un-encysted metacercariae) → eaten by paratenic host → definitive host infected by eating Paratenic host w/ encysted mesocercariae → flukes penetrate diaphragm → lungs → esophagus → small intestine → adults attach to mucous membrane of small intestine
How can Alaria be transmitted uniquely?Transmammary xmission
Zoonotic?Yes, eat improperly cooked frog legs
Clinical signs?Duodenitis in dogs & cats, pulmonary hemorrhage in humans, catarrhal enteritis
Dx?Large, yellow brown- greenish operculated eggs in feces
MemorizeAlana was a nice girl w/ big breasts that liked to eat frog legs, until 1 day eating them made her shit her small intestine out

Acanthocephala/ Thorny head worm of swine → Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus

Question Answer
What does the worm look like?*Retractable spiny proboscis
Egg looks like?*Egg- football shape, multilayered
Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus DH?Swine
Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus IH?May beetles/June bugs, dung & water beetles
Clinical signs?GI upset
Dx?Eggs in feces, sedimentation technique
MemorizeMac was a total man-pig, played football & was shitty, even bugs didnt like him

Check yo' self

Question Answer
Black dz is w/ what?FASCIOLA HEPATICA
Transplacental transmissionFASCIOLA HEPATICA
Human dude is eating raw watercress. What kinda dz can he get?FASCIOLA HEPATICA
How do you gotta fecal dx most flukes?Fecal sedimentation/ELISA
White tailed deer prolly are carrying what?Fascioloides magna
How would you dx Fascioloides magna?Can only do sedimentation test in DEER, because only the true DH sheds eggs in feces. Dead end hosts dont, & fluke doesnt mature in their liver
Forms thin-walled fibrous capsule in liver: Fascioloides magna
Question Answer
"Shag carpet" looking affected area covered in parasites caused by? Where?Paramphistomum cervi/ Rumen fluke
Paramphistomum cervi akaRumen fluke
Eggs undeveloped when passed in feces (not diagnostic) is who?Paramphistomum cervi/ Rumen fluke (immature people drinking amp are hard to describe)
Duodenal edema/erosions/hemorrhage are who?Paramphistomum cervi/ Rumen fluke
If you see ANTS, you think?Dicrocoelium dendriticum
How can you dx Dicrocoelium?Fecal float! bc small eggs
Gynaecophoric canal is who?Schistosoma
What causes swimmer's itch?Schistosomes → Bird schistosomes & Hetero cause swimmer’s itch
What is the infective stage of Heterobilharzia americana?Cercariae
Which 2 do pipe stem fibrosis?Heterobilharzia americana & fasciola hepatica
Starry sky liver?Heterobilharzia (schistosome)
Neorickettsia helminthoeca associated w/ what?Nanophyetus salmincola
Salmon poisoningNanophyetus salmincola (think: west coast, salmon & salamanders)
ACUTE hemorrhagic enteritis & lymphadenopathy, vomiting, diarrhea, fatal w/o treatmentdue to the neorickettsia-infected nanophyetus infestation
Lung fluke aka?Paragonimus kellicotti
CrayfishParagonimus kellicotti
Yellow vase-shaped eggsParagonimus kellicotti
Lots of coughing, w/ eggs in sputum or fecesParagonimus kellicotti / lung fluke
Signet ring like lesions in lung radiographsparagonimus
Frog legsAlaria
Transmammary xmission?ALARIA
Retractable spiny proboscis in adult, multilayered egg?Acanthocephala/thorny head worm of swine
Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus from what category?Acanthocephala/thorny head worm of swine
Arthropod IH?Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus
Swine dh?Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus