Parasit - Lab Quiz 3

isabellepjk's version from 2017-09-22 14:15

Crypto, Sarco, Toxo, & Neo

Question Answer
What is the life cycle of crypto?Direct or autoinfection
How is crypto transmitted?Oocysts from water or food (incld oysters) (can have mechanical transmission of oocyst. cat poop carries it) ALREADY SPORULATED IN POOP
How do you diagnose crypto?ACID FAST STAIN!!!!!!!
Can also use immunomagnetic separation
Is crypto zoonotic?YES. Dont eat cat poo or drink pool water.
Symptoms of crypto?DIARRHEA! LIKE WOAH. Chronic wasting.
Also in SNAKES there is gastric hypertrophy
Which is snakes & gastric hypertrophy?Cryptosporidium
Which lives in the villi?Crypto
Acid fast stain which?Cryptosporidium
When would you extra worry about a crypto infection?IMMUNOCOMPROMSED animals
Where does crypto like to hang out?IN THE VILI! Can have extraintesinal stages, though, apparently
Entire life is in the microvillus border, they live and replicate there
What is the life cycle of Sarcocystis?Obligatory 2 hosts...DH(predator) sheds oocysts in feces , &
IH(prey) ingests poop, & gets sarcocysts in their mm,
then predator eat prey, etc...
In the IH, what are the forms in Acute Sarcocystis? Chronic?Acute = tachyzoites
Chronic = Sarcocysts
How should you avoid Sarco?Dont eat raw meat, dont eat poop (ALREADY SPORULATED IN POOP!!!!)
Cows & Sarcocystis?ABORTION!
Horses & Sarcocystis?S. NEURONA!!! Causes EPM - EQUINE PROTOZOAL MYELOENCEPHALITIS! Get lots of CNS signs
Which causes EPM & how do you dx?SARCOCYSTIS! Dx w/ CNS fluid
What is the dead end host of Sarco?Horses
Which causes meningioencephalitis in marine mammals?Sarcocystis neurona

toxoplasma gondii also causes issues in marines
Usual DH of Sarcocystis?Possum
Usual IH of Sarcocystis?Skunk, raccoon, ruminants, armadillo
Cats are exclusively the DH of?Toxoplasma gondii
When are you worried about a preg mom & Toxoplasma? When arent you?If she has IgG but not IgM, she isnt infected & baby is safe.
If she has IgM ALSO, then baby is at risk bc tachyzoites can cross placenta
Which has an arc shaped tachyzoite?Toxo gondii
Life cycle of Toxo gondii?sexual repro ONLY in the cat intestines.
Cat poops → (sporulated) oocysts in poop (infective stage). IH eats poop→ gets infected, goes nuts & predator eats it → here we go again (intestinal & extraintestinal stages)
If you wanna avoid Toxo, you should?COOK MEAT! Careful handling cat poo
Why shouldnt you flush cat poop?Toxoplasma gondii is killing marine mammals because the cysts are viable still in sea water
Which does MIND CONTROL?Toxoplasma gondii
How can you dx Toxo?Fecal float can only be done in cats.
Serology/PCR, immunohistochem for everyone else
IgM = active infection and can cross through placenta
IgG = immunity
Which have sporocysts in fresh poop of dogs and cats?Sarcocystis
If a cow aborts, what 2 are you thinking of?Sarcocystis & Neospora
Horse w/ a CNS deficit, think of what two?Sarco neurona, & Neospora
Problems w/ seals? Think of which two?Sarco & Toxo
Dogs & Neospora signs?YOUNG → polyradiculoneuritis → HYPEREXTENSION OF LIMBS.
OLD → pyogranulomatous dermatits
Which has hyperextension of young dog limbs?Neosporum canis
Which has pyogranulomatous dermatits & pneumonia in old dogs?Neospora caninum
#1 cause of abortion in cows is? How to differentiate from the OTHER cow abortion 1?NEO = #1!!! Tell apart from Sarco via serology or by IDing cyst in dead fetus
Can see cysts in Neo and not sarco
Who don't care bout no antibodies?Neospora Caninum
How can neosporum canis be transmitted?Dog poops, IH eats poop (if cow, baby aborts) → dog eats fetus, then poops again (dog to puppies via transplacental)
Which has the exclusive DH being canids?Neosporum canis
Neo & horses?CNS signs! N. huicii
How can you dx Sarcocystis?IFAT with horse CSF
Fecal float to find cysts in the DH
Biopsy to find schizonts in endothelial cells
Sarcocysts in the mm of IH
How can you dx neosporum?ID cysts of tachyzoites in CNS, heart, liver, or FETUS,
In which host can you find sarcocysts in muscle? In which phase are they considered here?intermediate, in the chronic phase

Cryptosporidium (means "naked sporozoite")


Question Answer
Is Cryptosporidium Zoonotic?YES Infects 22 species!! Notifiable in GI illnesses in U.S. for humans. Not all species of Cryptosproidium are zoonotic. Community wide outbreaks common during late summer! (swimming in infected pools!)
Morphology of Cryptosporidium OocytesVery thick walled oocyst. Contains 4 sporozoites 22 species!
What is the transmission process of Cryptosporidium?DIrect & Autoinfection Fecal-oral --> Water or Food. RESISTANT TO CHLORINE!(Don't swim with diarrhea!) Mucosal scrapings and tissue homogenates from infected organs, Mechanically in non-living materials(boots, equipment)
When does the Cryptosporidum Oocyst sporulate & how long does it remain viable?The Oocyst sporulates(infective life stage) BEFORE it leaves the host & can remain viable outside of the host for several months because the Oocyst are stable in environment and resistant to most disinfectants. Freezing, heating or thorough drying can kill them.
Where do most Cryptosporidium Oocytes replicate & spend the majority of their life cycle?In the microvillus borders of enteric epithelial cells of the host, but also found in the gallbladder, respiratory system, and kidneys in immunocompromised hosts. (Life threatening in immune-compromised individuals!)
What is the most common seen Clinical Sign of Cryptosproidium?Diarrhea!
Which animals are know to be carriersPIGS
How does Cryptosporidium present in Calves(<1month old)?1-2 days PPP(pre- patent period). Diarrhea can be mild & transient to projectile severe & yellow with maybe blood, mucus or gas bubbles. Lethargy, fever, anorexia & possible CNS signs when infected with respiratory cryptosporidium. High morbidity with occasional mortality– C. parvum
How does Cryptosporidium present in Lambs & Goat kids?Similar, but more severe than calves. Infect distal portion of small intestine, cecum & large intestine.
How does Cryptosporidium present in Foals?Diarrhea in up to 80% <6 months old. Life-threatening if immunocompromised(SCIDs in Arabians!), Endogenous stages found in small intestine, stomach, bile, pancreatic ducts. – C. parvum
How does Cryptosporidium present in Pigs?Zoonotic! Seldom show signs of enteritis or colitis, some signs of mild inflammatory lesions present. – C. suis
How does Cryptosporidium present in Dogs?Zoonotic!(Ferret genotype) Dogs are more resistant unless immunocompromised(parvo pups) – C. canis
How does Cryptosporidium present in Cats?Zoonotic!, Anorexia, weight loss, diarrhea. Acute Renal Failure in Cats Treated with Paromomycin – C. felis
How does Cryptosporidium present in Snakes?Chronic wasting. Hypertrophic gastritis(swollen stomach). Mucsoal folds thickened with numerous pinpoints of foci hyperemia. Poor prognosis, Cull infected snakes.
How does Cryptosporidium present in Poultry?Can infect Anywhere pretty much! Proventriculus, conjunctiva, nasopharynx, larynx, trachea, bronci, small and large intestine, ceca, bursa of Fabriscus, cloacae, and kidneys – C. parvum
How does Cryptosporidium present in Humans?Life threatening in immunocompromised humans(AIDS). Watery diarrhea, cramping, abdominal pain. Flatulence, weight loss.
How do you diagnose Cryptosporidium?Acid Fast Stain!, PCR, Immunomagnetic Separation(IMS)(used primarily in research) Immunohistochemistry(IHC), IFA, ELISA



Question Answer
Morphology of Sarcocystis?Thick walled Sporulated Ooocyst in feces.

Sporozoites invade muscle tissue & form Sarcocysts containing the Bradyzoite form.
Do Sarcocystis require an intermediate host?YES
What species are the Definitive Host for Sarcocystis?Humans, dogs, cats -Predator
What species are the Intermediate Hosts for Sarcocystis?Ruminants, swine & horse (also armadilo, raccoon, skunk, cats, & sea otter) -Prey
What Life Cycle does the Sarcocystis require?INDIRECT! Obligatory 2 hosts(heteroxenous) via Predator-Prey life cycle
What is the Infective Stage of the Sarcocystis?The ingestion of the sarcocyst in undercooked meat & Sporulated Oocysts
How is Sarcocystis Transmitted to IH & their DH?IH Fecal-oral when grazing in area contaminated by Sporulated Oocysts from DH feces. DH via Predator-prey, when the DH eats an IH that contains Sarcocysts in their skeletal or cardiac muscle.
What are the Pathological phases of Sarcocystis infection?Acute & Chronic
What is the Acute Phase associated with?IH, Occurs in 1-3weeks, Associated with Tachyzoites(rapid dividing in cells-NOT in RBCs)
What is the Chronic Phase associated with?IH, fromation of cysts (Sarcocyts) containing Bradysoites(slowly dividing in cysts)
What are the Clinical Signs of Sarcocystis in Cattle?Abortion in last trimester, Intermittent fever, Decrease in milk yields, Dyspnea, Anorexia, Hemorrahagic Vaginitis, Excessive salivation, Diarrhea
What are the Clinical Signs of Sarcocystis in Sheep?Abortion, anorexia, ataxia and death, possibly Encephalomyelitis
What are the Clinical Signs of Sarcocystis in Pigs?Poor growth, diarrhea, myositis, lameness
What are the Clinical Signs of Sarcocystis in Humans?Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever, myalgia, bronchospasm, eosinophilia – Do not eat undercooked meat!!
What are the Clinical Signs of Sarcocystis in Horses?Horses are dead-end(aberrant) hosts similar to Marine animals these days.(IHs Not regularly consumed) Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis(EPM) presents as #1 cause of neurological signs in horses-Head tilt, wide stance, ear drooping, ptosis, dysphagia, muscle atrophy, depression & nerve paralysis of varying degrees. Severity DIRECTLY related to # of Sporulated Oocytes ingested( – S. neurona)
What causes Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis(EPM) in Horses?S. neurona. Not all horses exhibit clinical signs, but stress may worsen the conditions
How do we Diagnosis Sarcocystis in DH?Most are asymptomatic, but sporulated oocysts(sporocysts) can be seen in fecal floats, or observed in biopsy or necropsy.
How do we Diagnosis Sarcocystis in IH?Presence of schizonts in endothelial cells, brain, or spinal cord, OR presence of sarcocysts in skeletal and cardiac muscle in biopsy or necropsy. Also check History of exposure to DHs.
What are some other ways to Diagnosis Sarcocystis?Western Blot of CSF, IFAT, Elisa(Ab) & Avidin-Biotin Immunohistochemical Staining(immunohistochemistry). -False positives when blood is present.
Which tests are not considered diagnositic for Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis(EPM)?IFAT & Elisa(Ab) bc of high prevalence of sarcocystis species that cross react with S. neurona
What test is considered the Gold Standard for diagnosing Sarcocystis?NONE! Necropsy is the ONLY definitive test!
How do you Control Sarcocystis?Dead livestock should buried or burned. Encourage clients to not feed raw meat to dogs and cats --> unless frozen to kill cyst stage. Successful treatment for EPM defined by negative CSF Western Blot & then administration of Sulfadiazine, Supplement with folic acid or Nitrazoxanide