Parasit- Lab Quiz 2

isabellepjk's version from 2017-09-15 12:57

Intro to Hemoflagellates

Question Answer
Why is it so hard to develop a vx for trypanosomes?They are PLEOMORPHIC, and change their morphologic form based on the host they are in
How do trypanosomes reproduce?Binary fission
Which form of the trypanosome is found in insects? Mammals?Insects = Epimastigote
Mammals = Trypomastigote
What is an epimastigote?The form of the trypanosome in an insect
What is a trypomastigote? The form of the trypanosome in a mammal
What is an amastigote?The intracellular form of the trypomastigote(one in mammals)
What is a promastigote?Developmental stage of epimastigote (insect form)
What is a parabasal body?Structure from which the flagellum originates
What is a kinetoplast?An extension of the mitochondria

Stercorarian Trypanosomes (T. cruzi)

Question Answer
What is a Stercorarian Trypanosome?Trypanosome that develops in posterior alimentary tracts of IH (Intermediate Host) and is shed in feces
How is T. cruzi transmitted?Fecal-oral
T. cruzi is aka, and causes?AKA Chagas. trypanosomiasis
How can an animal be infected with T. cruziParasite lives in the gut of a kissing bug, kissing bug poops in environment and the animal ends up ingesting the feces from the kissing bug
ALSO blood transfusions, transmammary and transplacental
What are the reservoir hosts of T. cruzi?Raccoons, skunks, opossum, coyote, bobcat, feral pig, armadillo.
What type of life cycle is T. Cruzi?Type: Indirect
T cruzi amastigotes really like _____ ________ tissue and cause ___________?Cardiac muscle; Cardiomyopathy
Whats another way one can pick up T cruzi?FOOD-BOURNE

Trypanosoma Equiperdum

Question Answer
What is the other name for this parasite?Dourine
How is it transmitted?Venerally (SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED)
Is this a reportable or non-reportable dz?REPORTABLE
What are the symptoms of Trypanosoma equiperdum?Silver dollar plaque lesions, emaciation, paresis, intermittent fever, death.
What must you do BEFORE collecting samples when this is suspected?CONTACT THE AUTHORITIES
Then collect samples and send them to APPROVED AUTHORIZED LABS ONLY
What happens with the animals that are suspected of having Trypanosoma equiperdum? What about confirmed cases? Suspected: Quarantined, until confirmed negative
Confirmed cases are euthanized!


Question Answer
What is the type of life cycle for Leishmania?Indirect via sandflies (IH)
What is special about Leishmania vs other parasites we have studied so far?They have a prolonged incubation period - lots of travel time through the body -
What are the 3 forms of Leishmania? Which can be fatal?Diffuse Cutaneous, Mucocutaneous, Visceral; Visceral can be fatal
Explain what Diffuse Cutaneous Leishmania.This is an immune mediated process due to extensive, non-protective immunoglobulin response resulting in immune-complex deposition that causes vasculitis, arthritis and thrombocytopenia.
What does Diffuse Cutaneous Leishmania look like?Multiple rounded alopecic skin lesions on the pinna, ear, muzzle & footpads (Dermatitis). non-ulcerative nodules (COMEDONES) & plaques that dissemination from a localized lesion. Hair Coat become brittle & depigmentation is common.
How do we diagnose Leishmania?Dogs → Skin scrapings from the periphery of skin ulcers; Montenegro test, Leishmania antibody test (ELISA)
How do we treat Leishmania?Amphotericin B (but relapses are common), Controlling/preventing Leishmania is better; Leishmune Vax, topical insecticide (pyrethrins), Scalibor collars.

Eimeria (Coccidiosis)

Question Answer
How do you ID Eimeria under a microscope?Look for Oocysts in feces→ 4 sporocysts each containing 2 sporozoites (4 beers for 2 dollars)
What is the life cycle?Type: Direct → fecal-oral; Ingestion of sporulated oocysts by the DH and sporozoites released into the GIT invade cells and go thru schizogony and schizone release merozoites become macrogametes which rupture host cells and combine to create unsporulated oocysts and are released in feces.
E.bovis is pathogenic in ______ animals?Young animals
What is the disease caused by E. Bovis called? What special problems can develop?Winter Coccidiosis (bloody diarrhea) Tenesmus and can develop rectal prolapse and CNS signs.
What does continuous exposure to E. Bovis cause?Immunity, but high-risk to loosing them to infection
If you see CNS signs what should you suspect BEFORE E. bovis?E. Zuernii (Nervous Coccidiosis)
What are the clinical sign of Eimeria seen in Sheep?Green, Watery Diarrhea w/o blood
What are the clinical sign of Eimeria seen in Goats?Pale, watery diarrhea - blood in stool is not typical but may be seen
What are the clinical sign of Eimeria seen in Equine?Very large Oocysts. only E. leuckarti is harmless
What are the clinical sign of Eimeria seen in Avian?Enlarge caece with bloody contents
What are the clinical sign of Eimeria seen in Rabbits?Extremely pathogenic - cs = DEAD by the time they get to you.
** What are the clinical sign of Eimeria seen in Llama & Alpaca?Shock, edema, fat mobilization - E. Macusaniensis
How do you treat Eimeria?Anticoccidials
How do you diagnosis Eimeria? Oocysts in poo (don't forget! 4 beers for 2 dollars)
What are the two theories of coccidiosis in calves?1. Neuro symptoms acquired from Loss of Mg+ and serum Ca2+ in GIT. Tx with oral Mg and Ca
2. Alternate theory: Neurotoxin found in the serum of calves with nervous coccidiosis, and was not found in the control group with typical presenting coccidiosis...NT was isolated and caused seizures and tremors in mice

Cystoisospora & Isospora

Question Answer
How do you ID Cystoisospora & Isospora?Look for the opposite of Eimeria! 2 Beers for 4 Dollars! (more expensive!)
2 sporocyts with 4 sporozoites in each
What is the life cycle of Isosporas?DIRECT in cats and dogs
Indirect in other animals via Hypozoites in (PH) Paratenic Host tissues
What happens when you take in an Isospora? Sporozoites invade mesenteric and tracheobronchial lymph nodes, (also liver and spleen in immunocompromised Ptx)
Where do Isosporas live once they are inside you?INSIDE tissues!
How do you Dx Isosporas?Fecal Float
When do you Tx for Isosporas?Pigs before farrowing
Dogs - you don't usually treat them because they are immune (anticoccidials if they show CS)
What CS do you see in Cats? Pigs??Cats (sometimes dogs) - enteritis/colitis
Pigs - neonatal (piglet) Coccidiosis → pasty feces w/o blood
Can a dog with Isospora give it to a cat?NO! Isospora is species specific!
Dogs have 4 Species → I. canis, I ohioensis, I. neorivolta, I. burrowsi
Can a cat with Isospora give it to a dog?NO! Isospora is species specific!
Cats have 2 species → I. felis, I. rivolta
What species can get both Isospera and Eimeria?Snakes