Parasit Lab Quiz 2-2

dslemeraldcity's version from 2016-09-09 02:40

General Coccidia (Eimeria & Cystoisospora)

Question Answer
What are Coccidia?Intestinal Apicomplexa
What does Coccidia cause?Coccidiosis
Coccidia Morphology & Motality for Oocyst? Zoite?Oocyst is rounded at one end & pointed at the other. It is passed in the feces of the Definitive Host. Zoite is banana/cigar shaped & motile. It glides to an intestinal cell & burrows in.
Sporozite Life Stage?The Infective/Invasive Form found in sporulated Oocysts found in the feces of DH
Merozoite Life Stage?Progeny of the Sporozoite
Tachyzoite Life Stage?Rapidly dividing zoite - Not in RBCs
Bradyzoite Life Stage?Slowly dividing zoite
When is the Coccidia in a ~Resisitant Spore-like stage?Oocyst
What is a Sporulated Oocyst?The process of sporogony that occurs in the host's feces with the formation of sporocysts & sporozoites within the Oocyst.
What is Schizogony (Merogony)?Multiple internal fissions (Asexual Division). The Sporozoites invade the DH's cells where they form Merozoites through this process.
What is Gametogony (Gamogony)?Merozoite produced when the final Schizogony enters a fresh host cell and develops into either a male (microgametocyte or microgamont) or female (macrogametocyte or macrogamont)
How is a Oocyst formed?The union of a Microgametocyte (male) & Macrogametocyte (female)
What effect does Coccidia have on owners? Due to what?Huge economic loss in cattle & poultry especially in the young animals. Due to Coccidiosis
What is the Intermediate Host for Eimeria & Cystoisospora? (Trick Question)Usually a one host parasite found only in its Definitive Host
How do Eimeria & Cystoisospora reproduce?Sexual & Asexually
True or False- Eimeria & Cystoisospora infect all organs & cell types in their Definitive Host.FALSE - They are very site specific.

Eimeria (Coccidiosis)

Question Answer
Eimeria is found in which animals?Ruminants, Chicken, Rabbits, Llama, Alpaca & Reptiles (species specific)
Eimeria is Nonpathogenic in which animals?Horses & Pigs (species specific)
How do you ID Eimeria under a microscope?Look for Oocysts in feces --> ~4 sporocysts inside the Oocyst. Each sporocyst contains 2 sporozoites. So each Oocyst contains a total of 8 sporozoites
What stage is Eimeria Infectious?Sporulated Oocyst
What is the life cycle?Type: Direct --> fecal-oral; Ingestion of sporulated oocysts from DH's feces. Sporozoites released from Oocyst into the GIT invade epithelial cells and go thru schizogony and schizone release merozoites. The merozoites then become macro/microgametes which fetilize each other & becomes an oocyst. The host cell then ruptures & releases oocysts to be excreded in the feces. Once the Oocyte is outside of the host on the ground, the Oocyte sporulates & remains in this infective stage until eaten by a new DH.
E. Bovis is pathogenic in? Causes what?4 week old calves. Bovine Coccidiosis
What is the disease caused by E. Bovis called? What special problems can develop?Winter Coccidiosis- bloody diarrhea & mucus in feces, as well as Tenesmus (the feeling that you constantly need to pass stool, even though the bowels are empty) which leads to rectal prolapse. Nervous Coccidiosis is alson see in beef calves (muscle tremors & convulsions)
What does continuous exposure to E. Bovis cause?immunity, but high-risk to loosing them to infection & stress can suppress the immunity!
If you see CNS signs what should you suspect BEFORE E. bovis?E. Zuernii (Nervous Coccidiosis)
What are the clinical sign of Eimeria seen in Sheep?Feedlot lambs. Shipping Stress. Reduced weight & poor wool quality. - E. ovinoidalis
What are the clinical sign of Eimeria seen in Goats?Kids > 2 weeks old. Pale, watery, green diarrhea - blood in stool is not typical, dehydration, enteritis & colitis. Bloody stool & death seen in severe cases.
What are the clinical sign of Eimeria seen in Equine?Nonpathogenic. Incidental finding. Very large Oocysts with thick brown wall - E. leukarti. Klossiella found in Renal may be pathogenic in immunocompromised horses.
What are the clinical sign of Eimeria seen in Avian?Most severe in young chicks. Enlarge caece with bloody contents. diarrhea, weight loss, decreased egg production - E. tenella
What are the clinical sign of Eimeria seen in Rabbits?Liver & intestinal. Mild (little to no signs) to Severe (hepatomegaly), anorectic, rough coat, Grave Prognosis Liver Coccidia - E. stiedai
What are the clinical sign of Eimeria seen in Llama & Alpaca?Cirulatory shock, protien loss, lethargy, weight loss (fat mobilization), decreased appitite, diarrhea - E. macusaniensis
How do you diagnosis Eimeria? Oocysts in fecal float (don't forget! 4 beers for 2 dollars)
Histopathology of Eimeria?Cholangitis, villous atrophy, crypt hyperplasia, hemorrhage, sloughing of cells, increased infiltration of neutrophils
How do you treat Eimeria?Anticoccidials

Cystoisospora (Isospora)

Question Answer
How do you ID Cystoisospora (Isospora)?Direct from fecal float --> The Oocyte has 2 sporocysts with 4 sporozoites in each. So each Oocyte also contains 8 sporozoites total.

(Opposite of Eimeria!) (2 Beers for 4 Dollars! More expensive!)
What is the life cycle of Cystoisospora?Species Specific! DIRECT Lifestyle with 2 exceptions --> Hypozoites (1 sporozoite) in extraintestinal tissues of Paratenic Hosts (PH- mice, rats, hamsters, opossums) & Sporozoite/Merozoite in extraintestinal tissues of dogs, cats or humans (lymph nodes, liver, spleen, etc.)
What species is Cystoisospora found in?Dogs, Cats, Piglests, Reptiles
What happens when you take in an Cystoisospora? Sporozoites invade mesenteric and tracheobronchial lymph nodes, (also liver and spleen in immunocompromised Ptx)
Where do Cystoisospora live once they are inside you?INSIDE tissues!
How do you Dx Cystoisospora?Fecal Float! History, Clinical Signs, Mucosal Scrapings! (Intestinal scrapings may contain endogenous stages) & PCR
When do you Tx for Cystoisospora?Pigs before farrowing, Dogs - you don't usually treat them because they are immune (anticoccidials if they show CS) SANITIATION
What Clinical Signs do you see in Cats & Dogs?Diarrhea, enteritis/colitis lesions, weight loss, dehydration, occasionally death in the young
What Clinical Signs do you see in Pigs?Most severe in pigs! (high morbidity & mortality) Neonatal Porcine Coccidiosis --> disease of nursing piglets. Diarrhea at 7-14days old --> pasty to liquid feces w/o blood. Most lesions found in jejunum and ileum & ocasionally in the cecum or colon. Extraintestinal stages have not been found - I. suis
Can a dog with Cystoisospora give it to a cat?NO! Cystoisospora is species specific! Dogs have 4 Species --> I. canis, I ohioensis, I. neorivolta, I. burrowsi - Hard to differentiate. All found in either the small or large intestines.
Can a cat with Cystoisospora give it to a dog?NO! Cystoisospora is species specific! Cats have 2 species --> I. felis, I. rivolta - Both found in the cecum, large & small intestine.
Pathology of Cystoisospora?Villous fusion or atrophy & Necrotic enteritis