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Parasit - Lab Quiz 10-3

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drraythe's version from 2015-05-13 20:03

Ticks

General

Question Answer
2 basic parts of the Tick?Capitulum (Mouthparts + Basis Capituli) & abdomen
2 parts of a tick’s mouth?Chelicerae & Hypostome
Ticks are? How many legs do larvae, nymphs, adults have?Arachnids; Larvae have 6 legs (3 pairs), Nymphs & adults have 8 legs (4 pairs)
What is the general life cycle of ticks?Eggs → Larva → Molts → Nymphs → Molts → Adults
All life stages (except eggs) require a blood meal
Many-host ticks have 5 molts & are usually soft ticks & molts occur OFF HOST
Family the Hard Ticks come from?Ixodidae
Family the Soft Ticks come from?Argasidae
If you are looking down at a tick, how can you know it’s a soft/hard tick?No mouthparts seen = soft tick. Their mouthparts cannot be seen from the dorsal view
What are ticks IH’s for?Babesia, Theileria, Hepatozoon & Cytauxzoon
Describe Tick ParalysisIt occurs 2-7 days after feeding has begun. SUDDEN onset of hind limb lameness leads to ascending limb paralysis & then lateral recumbency. Paralysis is reversed when the ticks are removed
What is the differences b/t larval & nymph ticks.Larval ticks have 3 pairs of legs, Nymphs & adults have 4 pairs of legs
What are 2 notable differences between hard & soft ticks?1) Hard ticks have a scutum - soft ticks do not
2) Hard tick females mate on the host & lay 1 huge batch of eggs, then die - Soft ticks mate off the hosts & lay multiple batches at each feeding
What does Interstadial mean? (KNOW)MULTIPLE LIFE STAGES OF SAME TICK
“Infected larva/nymph can carry a EHRLICHA thru molts”
2 & 3-host ticks xmit dz organisms acquired by a larval tick
Infected nymph can xmit the dz organism to the host that it feeds upon OR nymph acquires dz, molts & infects next host as an adult tick
What does Transovarian mean? (KNOW)MOM GIVES EGGS BABESIA
Occurs when Babesia piroplasms pass to the ovary of tick, become incorporated into larvae in eggs. Once hatched, larvae xmit piroplasms to a host. Can xmit as nymph & adult!
What are the 3 proper ways to remove a tick?(1) Coat tick w/ Vaseline or Cottonball of 70% ETOH or dishwashing liquid & let it drop off
(2) Cover w/ dilute pyrethrin or fipronil solution & let it drop off
(3) Use tweezer but be VERY CAREFUL TO REMOVE MOUTHPARTS
NEVER put hot match to tick. You will burn animal or explode tick releasing pathogens EVERYWHERE
What is Tick worry?Ill thrift brought about by loss of blood, pain & swelling of bite wound, 2° infxn, myiasis & absorption of toxins. Most common consequence of tick infestation
memorize

Hard Ticks FOCUS ON THE DZs + TICK SPREADING THEM

Question Answer
Name the Hard Tick genuses?Family: Ixodidae
(BRAID)
Boophilus (Cattle tick)(subgenus of Rhipicephalus, 1 host tick)
Rhipicephalus (Brown dog tick, ZOONOTIC)
Amblyomma
Ixodes (Black-legged deer tick)
Dermacentor (American dog tick)
Ixodid ticks aka? Hard/soft? Appearance? Transmits? How many hosts?BLACK LEGGED TICKS Hard Ticks. Distinct anal groove, inornate, NO FESTOONS!! 3-host ticks
Xmits: Lyme Dz, Babesia, Ehrlichia (interstadially), POW & Tick Paralysis
Who is the main vector for Lyme Dz (B. burgdorferi)I. scapularis (Black Legged Deer Tick) INTERSTIDIAL XFER
Dermacentor ticks aka? Hard/soft? Appearance? How many hosts?Hard Ticks. Festoons present, ornate w/ white on scutum. 1-3 host ticks
D. variabilis (American Dog Tick) - 3 host tick
D. andersoni (Rocky Mt. Wood Tick) - 1 host tick
D. nitens (Tropical Horse Tick. S. Florida & Texas) - 1 host tick
D. albipictus (Winter Tick) - 1 host tick
D. variabilis?(American Dog Tick) 3 HOST TICK! Xmits RMSF (R. rickettsii), Tularemia (F. tularnesis), Cytauxzoon felis & causes Tick Paralysis
D. andersoni?(Rocky Mt. Wood Tick) xmits RMSF, WEE, Tularemia, Colorado Tick Fever, Q-fever, Cytauxzoon felis & causes Tick Paralysis
D. nitens?(Tropical Horse Tick) xmits Equine Piraplasmosis (Babesia caballi) (KNOW THIS)
D. albipictus? (prob. not on exam)(Winter Tick) Heavy losses of deer, elk, & moose in N. USA
Rhipicephalus? Hard/soft? Appearance? Transmits? How many hosts?ZOONOTIC. BROWN WOOD TICK Hard tick. 3-host tick. Can live indoors & in kennels. Hexagonal basis capitulum, inornate scutum, palps are short, festoons present
IH for: Babesia canis (Canine Piraplasmosis) (TRANSOVARIAN)
Vectors for: Tropical Canine Pancytopenia (Ehrlichia canis), E. chaffensis (humans), tick paralysis, RMSF, hepatozoonosis, haemobartonellosis. Extremely Prevalent in Grenada
R. sanguineus (Brown Dog Tick)
R. sanguineus?ZOONOTIC (Brown Dog Tick) IH for Babesia canis. Vectors: Ehrlichia canis, E. chaffensis (humans), tick paralysis, RMSF, hepatozoonosis, haemobartonellosis. Extremely Prevalent in Grenada
Boophilus tick aka? Transmits?(Cattle Tick) Subgenus of Rhipicephalus REPORTABLE! REINTORDUCED FROM MEXICO Adapted to White Tailed Deer (WTD) making it almost impossible to get rid of them. Cattle get them from eating vegetation w/ larvae on them
(Hard ticks. 3 host ticks. Short palps ridged dorsally & laterally. Inornate scutum)
Cattle get Boophilus infestions by?Eating grass/vegetation that have Larvae on them. (Momma tick lays eggs in the environment, it has NOTHING DO TO WITH WTD)
Amblyomma ticks? Hard/soft? Appearance? Transmits? How many hosts?(Lone Star Tick) Hard ticks. Allergic rxn called ‘MEAT ALLERGY’ caused by saliva white on scutum, ornate, festoons present, mouthparts are longer than the basis capitulum.
African Amblyomma on Leopard Tortoise Tick xmit heartwater dz in cattle, sheep & goats!! Importation of this animal has been BANNED
What happens in tick paralysis when the tick is removed?It is reverses!
What tick usually causes of Tick Paralysis in the Pacific Northwestern US?Ixodes pacificus
What does Babesia cause?Anemia, icterus, hemoglobinemia (& abortion in horses)
What are those dumb mnemonics?Hard ticks are BRAID & the ones who have festoons are RAD
Hard ticks that cause Tick Paralysis AID
Which ticks transfer Babesia in cattle & horses?TRANSOVARIAN xfer! Cattle: Rhip, Ixo & Boo (RIB)
Horse: Derm (Damn horses)
Which ticks xmit Hepatozoon americanum?Rhip & Amb
Which ticks xmit Cytauxzoon felis as well as RMSF?Derm & Amb
Which ticks xmits Lyme & Powassan Virus (POW)?Ixo
Who has a distict anal groove??Ixo
A cat comes in w/ fever, depression & paralysis. On necropsy you see hemorrhage & lots of merozites in macrophages which have swollen & occluded vessels leading to death. Which agent & which ticks did you find on the body?Derm &/or Amb ticks w/ Cytauxzoon felis
Which tick's saliva causes an allergic reaction to meat?Amb (their saliva can stimulate the human immune system to produce antibodies to a sugar present in mammalian meat)
What do you need to know about Hepatozoon canis?Host = Dogs
Vector = Rhipicephalus & Amblyomma
LC = Asexual stage (schizogony) in tissues (skeletal m cells). Sexual stages develop in WBC's (neutrophil, monocyte). Xferred to dogs by ingesting infected tick w/ sporulated oocysts. Xferred back to tick during blood meal (ingests neutrophils & monocytes). Gametogony in tick’s body
CS: Fever, neutrophilia, myalgia, bone proliferation, muscle wasting
Why has eradication of the Cattle Tick become difficult since re-introduction in the US in 2008?Boophilus established itself on White-Tailed Deer (WTD) sharing land w/ pasture cattle
What do you need to know about Cytauxzoon felis?Host = Cats
Vectors = D. variabilis, D. andersoni
LC = Asexual stage (schizogony) in MNPs & sexual stage in RBCs
CS = Anorexia, depression, dyspnea, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, hepato/splenomegaly, petechial hemorrhage
Who engorges?ONLY ADULT FEMALES (have a cuticle/alloscutum that can enlarge)
Hard ticks may have festoons, what are they?Semi-rectangular areas adjacent to posterior margin of the dorsum
Describe what happens when a dog is infected w/ Hepatozoon americanum. What CS would we see?Dog eats an infected tick (Rhipicephalus or Amblyomma) & gametes get into dog WBCs. Schizonts develop in the tissues. Dogs present w/ a Hx of periosteal proliferation, muscle pains & neutrophilia
memorize

Soft Ticks

Question Answer
Name the Soft Ticks?Family: Argasidae
Argas (fowl tick)
Ornithodoros
Otobius (spinous ear tick, Zoonotic! 1 host tick)
1 soft tick that you would find on a bird? When do the different stages attack?Soft tick: Argas. Argas larvae attack day & night. Argas adults only attack at night
Argas larvae can cause?Fatal Flaccid Paralysis Young Chickens
Argas tick aka? Hard/soft? Appearance? Transmits? How many hosts?FOWL TICK. Soft Tick
Adults are flattened, ovoid, yellow to reddish-brown & mammillated & wrinkled dorsally & ventrally; Adults rarely found on host
Hosts: Chickens, Turkeys, Wild birds
LC = Larvae attack day or night & attach for 5 days, but nymphs & adults feed intermittently & are more active at night. Xmits Avian Spirochetosis & causes Tick Worry
Borrelia hermsii causes? Is xmitted by?Tickborne Relapsing Fever. Argas tick
What are the CSs of Avian Spirochetosis? Which xmits it?Xmitted by Argas Ticks. CS = Listlessness, depression, somnolence, moderate to marked shivering & increased thirst. Ruffled feathers, anemia/pale combs & inappetence can lead to weigth loss. Young birds are affected more severely than older ones. During the initial stages of the dz, there is usually a green or yellow diarrhea w/ increased urates
Ornithodoros tick: Hard/soft? Appearance? Transmits? How many hosts?Soft Tick
More globular compared to Argas. Found in tropical habitats & at higher altitudes. Can be found in niches in rodent burrows, caves, dens, etc. Reported on bats, chipmunks, squirrel, birds in U.S.
Xmits = African swine fever & Tickborne Relapsing Fever (caused by Borrelia hermsii, B. turicatae & B. persica) that can be xmitted to humans!
CS in humans = Fever, chills, sweats, acute respiratory distress are possible
Otobius tick aka? Hard/soft? Appearance? Transmits? How many hosts?SPINOUS EAR TICK Soft Tick. Zoonotic! 1 Host tick
Violin shaped, feeding in ear. Adults have no mouth parts, only vestigial hypostomes & are NOT parasitic & lay only 1 batch of eggs like hard ticks. Larvae & nymphARE parasitic
CS in Horses = Muscle cramping, sweating, muscle tremors, & CNS signs if tympanic membrane perforated
CS Dogs = 2° otic bacterial infxn, ↓ appetite, ↓ energy, head shaking & ear scratching, Waxy, oily, or bloody exudate
CS in Cattle = Restlessness w/ muscular incoordination & possible sudden collapse/death
There are no known toxins or infectious agents associated with Otobius
Your Client's Horse presents with muscle cramping, sweating, muscle tremors. What tick is infesting this horse?Otobius Tick (Soft)
memorize

Name the Tick & Dz it transmits!

Question Answer
IOXODES scapularis (Black Legged Deer Tick)
Vectors Lyme Dz via Interstadial xmiss (KNOW THIS & PIC COLD)
I. holocyclus (Paralysis Tick) Causes Tick paralysis
I. pacificus (Western Black Legged Tick; N. USA) Vectors Babesia = Bovine Piroplamosis ALL CAN XMIT HUMAN GRANULOCYTIC EHRLICHIOSIS
D. variabilis (American Dog Tick) 3 HOST TICK! Xmits RMSF (R. rickettsii), Tularemia (Fransiella tularnesis), Cytauxzoon felis & causes Tick Paralysis
D. andersoni (Rocky Mt. Wood Tick) xmits RMSF, WEE, Tularemia, Colorado Tick Fever, Q-fever, Cytauxzoon felis & causes Tick Paralysis
D. nitens (Tropical Horse Tick) (S. Florida & Texas only) xmits Equine Piraplasmosis (Babesia caballa)
R. sanguineus ZOONOTIC (Brown Dog Tick) IH for Babesia canis. Vectors: Ehrlichia canis, E. chaffensis (humans), tick paralysis, RMSF, hepatozoonosis, haemobartonellosis. Extremely Prevalent in Grenada
Boophilus (Cattle Tick) a subgenus of Rhipicephalus REPORTABLE! Hard, 3 host tick. Short palps ridged dorsally & laterally. NO FESTOONS, rectangular capitulum, inornate scutum. Adapted to White Tailed Deer (WTD)
Amblyomma americanum (Lone Star Tick) important in USA & parasitize humans, livestock, dogs & cats. Allergic rxn called ‘MEAT ALLERGY’ caused by saliva.
African Amblyomma on Leopard Tortoise Tick xmit heartwater dz in cattle, sheep & goats!! Importation of this animal has been BANNED
memorize