Parasit - Lab Quiz 10-1

drraythe's version from 2015-05-13 16:50


Family Protostrongylidae

Question Answer
Life cycle of Protostrongylidae? DH?Oviparous protostrongylid females deposits unembryonated eggs in lung, vascular, or neural tissues. These eggs develop to L1 before appearing feces. L1 ingested by snails or slugs (IH) develop into doubly ensheathed L3. IH are eaten by DH. L3 are released after digestion. They cross the gut wall & migrate to lungs through the lymphatic system & blood stream. In lungs the larvae cross the alveolar mucosa to the lumen of the alveoli or remain in the lung tissue. All of the protostrongylids are parasites of sheep/goats. Some have additional DHs.
Protostrongylus worms can be transmitted _ ?Transplacentally
Protostrongylus L1s have a _ tail?
Protostrongylus worms are the most important parasites in _ ? Big Horn Sheep
Mullerius capillaris aka? Life cycle?Goat Lungworm. Indirect: Oviparous protostrongylid females deposit unembryonated eggs in lung. Eggs develop to L1 & hatch before appearing in feces. L1 ingested by snails or slugs (IH) & develop into L3. IH ingested by DH. L3s cross the gut wall & migrate to lungs through the lymphatic system & blood stream. In lungs the larvae remain in the lung paranchyma
Mullerius capillaris PPP?5 weeks
How do you Dx Mullerius capillaris?Baermann Technique
What does Mullerius capillaris cause?Verminous Pneumonia (Nodular "adenoma-like" proliferation of the bronchial epithelium)
How can you diff Mullerius from Protostrongylus?Mullerius L1 has a tail spike & wavy tail
Protostrongylus has a pointed tail & NO spike
What can you do to help prevent lungworm infection?Prevent sheep & goats from grazing near wet, swampy areas that may harbor snails/slugs
Parelaphostrongylus tenuis aka? Aka?Meningeal worm, Brainworm
What are the DH of Parelaphostrongylus tenuis?White-Tailed deer
What are accidental Hosts of Parelaphostrongylus tenuis?Any ruminant + Moose, Elk, Caribou, Mule deer, black-tailed deer, sheep, goats & guinea pigs are susceptible to infxn
Where do you find Parelaphostrongylus tenuis adults?Venous sinuses & subdural space of the brain
What is the life cycle of Parelaphostrongylus tenuis?Eggs deposited in meninges develop, hatch, enter the circulation & are carried to the lungs; Eggs laid in the venous circulation are carried to the lungs. Once in the lungs eggs embryonate & hatch into L1. L1 are carried up the bronchi + trachea & are swallowed. L1 (w/ a dorsal spine) appear in the feces of white-tailed deer. L1 larvae are ingested by terrestrial slugs & snails (IH) & develop to infective L3 (~3-4 wks). IH is eaten by DH. L3 migrate to the spinal cord in 10 days & develop in the dorsal horns of the grey matter for 20-30 days. Adults leave the neural parenchyma for the spinal subdural space & migrate to the cranium. They enter venous sinuses by penetrating the dura mater. PPP ~3 mo in WTD.
What happens to Parelaphostrongylus tenuis L3 if they infect an accidental host?Larva ↑ in size but do not mature. They migrate aberrantly causing a variety of CS. No Larva in feces (Larvae ONLY appear in feces of WTD)
(Parelaphostrongylus tenuis in spinal cord of Alpaca)
How tough is Parelaphostrongylus tenuis L3? How does it evade the immune system?Extremely tough, can survive cold & dissecation. Uses PtCPR-1 native protein & encyst in granulomatous nodules
How can you Dx Parelaphostrongylus tenuis?CS/Hx, histopath, ELISA, CSF tap (also PCR)
Metastrongylus aka?Swine Lungworm
Metastrongylus IH?Earthworms
Metastrongylus adults like to hang out in?Bronchi & bronchioles
Migrating Metastrongylus larvae cause?Verminous pneumonia
Metastrongylus Dx?Embryonated, thick-shelled eggs in feces (S for Swine)
L1 has blunted tail


Question Answer
What stage of Dictyocaulus is infective?L3
Host for D. arnfieldi?(those DARN) Donkey/Mule, Horse, sheep, goat, cattle
Dictyocaulus; Horse, mule/donkey, sheep, goat, cattle
D. viviparous host?Calves 4-6mo
Most important lungworm in calves & only nematode to reach maturity in lungs of cattle?D. viviparous
D. filaria host?Sheep, Goats (bronchopneumonia)
Dictyocaulus life cycle type? What's the egg look like?Direct; Egg →
Xmission of Dictyocaulus?Ingestion
In what species is D. arnfieldi most pathogenic?Horse (verminous pneumonia). Mules/Donkey asymptomatic
D. arnfieldi life cycle?Unembryonated eggs deposited in the lungs → L1’s develop within the host → L3’s develop in the feces ~5-7 days (pointed tail; rarely seen in older horses), PPP ~5-6 wks
Patent D. arnfieldi infections can occur in?Foals, donkeys & mules
D. arnfieldi CS?Bronchitis from large numbers of larvae breaking into the lungs & many adult worms in the bronchi cause irritation of the mucosa. Dyspnea from Inflammation of bronchial tissue & increase in mucus production
Heavy worm burdens of D. arnfieldi are a significant cause of?Mortality in horses of all ages, especially in foals.
Clinical signs of D. viviparous?Scours, rapid weight loss, verminous pneumonia
Location of adult Dictyocaulus?Lungs
What is the only nematode that reaches maturity in lung of cattle?D. viviparous
D. arnfieldi prevention?Don't pasture horses w/ mules unless dewormed
D. filaria infxn CSs in sheep/goats?Mild, unless heavy burden
What lungworm has a vaccine? How is it made? How/when do you give it?There is an Oral Vaccine for D. viviparous & D. filaria; 2 doses of irradiated (L3) larvae Administered 4 weeks apart & before the start of the grazing season
D. filaria
How can you differentiate D. filaria?Blunt tail, blunt head with protruding knob, brownish intestinal granules


Filaroides & Aelurostrongylus

Question Answer
What stage is Filaroides infective?L1 (directly to puppies)
What's special about the Filaroides larvae tail?'S' shaped kink in tail
Nodule formation in the trachea & bronchi of canids (wild & domestic)?F. oslerus
When is nodule formation an issue?Dingos/wild dogs try to regurgitate food for young
Pathogenesis of F. hirthi?Focal granulomatous rxn, pulmonary changes
Lung parenchyma?F. hirthi
Why can F. Hirthi be a problem?If misdiagnosed as kennel cough & prednisone is administrated = death
Larva w/ kinked tail/ 'S' shape?Filaroides
F. osleri host?Canids (wild & domestic)
Where is F. osleri found?In nodules in trachea and bronchi
F. hirthi/milksi location?Lung Parenchyma
In dogs, Filaroides molts _ times & are completed in the?5 times in the Lung tissue
What stage is infective for Aelurostrongylus?L3
Aelurostrongylus host?Cat
Aelurostrongylus aka?Cat Lungworm
What do Aelurostrongylus larvae have?Dorsal spine
What do cats eat to ingest Aelurostrongylus?Snails or PH that ate snails, (frogs, lizards etc)
Coughing with a picture of a larvae with spine =?Aelurostrongylus, (otherwise coughing = HW)
Subplerual nodules =?Aelurostrongylus
What else can you use to Dx lungworm if float is negative but you still suspect it?Baermann
With Tx Filaroides Nodules?May reduce in size, but not resolve completely
Aelurostrongylus abstrusus: CATS