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Parasit - Lab Quiz 1-2

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drraythe's version from 2016-09-10 18:59

Protozoa - Giardia lamblia

Question Answer
What are the host(s) for Giardia lamblia?(ZOONOTIC) many mammals, including, rodents, ruminants, pigs, dogs, cats, beavers, HUMANS, & birds (REPORTABLE)
What type of life cycle does giardia lamblia have?DIRECT! (no intermediate hosts).
- infective cysts are ingested and 2 trophozoites excyst in the duodenum & attach via their adhesive disks to the microvillus surfaces of epithelial cells of the duodenum
- reproduction via longitudinal binary fission every 12 hrs
- encystment of trophs occurs in the lower intestinal tract (probably due to lack of nutrients or electrolytes as ingesta has been digested & absorbed)
*prepatent period is 6-8 days
What is the route of transmission for giardia lamblia?Fecal-oral, direct
Pathology of giardia lamblia?Cause crypt atrophy due to damaging the surface of the microvillus
Clinical signs of giardia lamblia?Majority are asymptomatic. (*diarrhea is the most commonly associated clinical symptom) – diarrhea may be acute, short-lived, or chronic. Feces (diarrhea or normal) is usually (pale, greasy, & mixed w/ mucus) bc the trophozoites damage the surface of the microvilli & cause crypt atrophy, thus affecting digestive enzymes w/in the brush border membrane. Chronic infxn may lead to weight loss, dry skin, poor quality hair coats, growth retardation, & borborygmi (abdominal sounds). (Interfere w/ fat/nutrition absorption, Vit B12 deficiency possible!). SULFUR-SMELLING FECES/BELCHING
How do you diagnose giardia lamblia?Identification of Cysts via fecal flotation w/ iodine staining & fecal saline mount. Recovery of Trophozoites via direct fecal smear stained with trichrome or iron-hematoxylin. 3 stools should be examined 3 days to 1 week apart since cyst passage is intermittent. ELISA testing – IDEXX Giardia Snap Test® is great method for testing cats & dogs
Describe the life stages of giardia lamblia?There is a trophozoite & a cyst stage
Describe the appearance of giardia- trophozoite stage(SMILEY FACE) fragile, motile feeding stage pyriform-shaped & binucleate has ventral adhesive disk, 2 median bodies, axonemes, & 4 pairs of flagella. Found in diarrhea.
Describe the appearance of giardia- cyst stageDormant, resistant & infective stage (responsible for transmission). Each cyst contains 2 potential trophozoites, has axonemes, 4 nuclei, & fragments of the former ventral disc.
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Protozoa - Entamoeba histolytica

Question Answer
What condition does Entamoeba histolytica cause?Amoebiasis... amoebic dysentery
What are the host(s) for Entamoeba histolytica?ZOONOTIC!! Dogs & primates (human & non-human)
What type of life cycle does Entamoeba histolytica have?DIRECT life cycle via fecal-oral contamination. Ingestion of cyst w/ digestion of cyst wall in SI, releasing 4 motile, amoeboid trophozoites → Trophozoites divide by binary fission in the cecum & colon (E. histolytica resides in crypts of LI) → Establishment of intestinal infection may be followed by invasion of other organs including liver, lung, & brain.
What is the route of transmission for Entamoeba histolytica?Fecal-oral, Direct
Pathology of Entamoeba histolytica?Single cell protozoan (Trophozoite) in intestinal contents. (Cysts are the Infective Life Stage.) Usually cause little to no pathology in domestic animals, BUT.... DOG - localizes in cecum & only rarely invades the tissues & produces clinical signs of acute or chronic amoebiasis (amoebic dysentery). HUMANS (& nonhuman primates) - trophozoites invade cecal, colonic, or rectal mucosa & generate flask-shaped ulcers. May also invade other organs, including liver, lung, & brain. (In histo class, use flasks)
Clinical signs of Entamoeba histolytica?1. Appear to cause little harm in domestic animals
2. Trophozoites and cysts appear frequently in fresh fecal smears
(a.) Including asymptomatic, healthy cattle, sheep, goats, horses, and swine
3. In dogs E. histolytica localizes in the cecum
4. Occasionally invades the tissues and produces clinical signs of acute or chronic amoebiasis (amoebic dysentery )
How do you diagnose Entamoeba histolytica?Cysts are usually seen in formed feces & Trophozoites are usually seen in diarrheic stools. Perform a iodine fecal float, ELISA, IFAT (Immunofluorescence Antibody Test), Hemagglutination Tests, PCR, DNA probes.
Describe the life stages of Entamoeba histolytica?Cyst & trophozoite stage
Describe the appearance of Entamoeba histolytica- trophozoite stage.Single nucleus w/ central endosome & food vacuoles containing RBCs
Describe the appearance of Entamoeba histolytica- cyst stage.4 nuclei w/ central endosomes
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Protozoa - Entamoeba invadens

Question Answer
What are the host(s) for Entamoeba invadens?Captive Reptiles, esp snakes & carnivorous lizards (NOT so much in turtles aka herbivorous chelonians)
What type of life cycle does Entamoeba invadens have?(DIRECT life cycle via fecal-oral contamination.) Ingestion of cyst w/ digestion of cyst wall in SI, releasing 4 motile, amoeboid trophozoites → Trophozoites divide by binary fission in the cecum & colon (E. histolytica resides in crypts of LI) → Establishment of intestinal infection may be followed by invasion of other organs including liver, lung, & brain.
What is the route of transmission for Entamoeba invadens?Fecal-oral, Direct
Pathology of Entamoeba invadens?Causes severe disease & death in captive reptiles. Most pathogenic in snakes & carnivorous lizards, usually nonpathogenic & found in the intestine, & sometimes stomach, liver, spleen, kidneys, & lungs in herbivorous chelonians (turtles & tortoises)
Clinical signs of Entamoeba invadens?Amebiasis (amoebic dysentery) - diarrhea!
How do you diagnose Entamoeba invadens?Fecal float, ELISA, IFAT, PCR & DNA probes, hemagglutination tests
Describe life stages of Entamoeba invadensTrophozoite & cyst (Cysts are the Infective Life Stage.)
Describe the appearance of Entamoeba invadens, trophozoite formNucleus w/ central endosome

(image of trophozoite & cyst)
Describe the appearance of Entamoeba invadens, cyst form1-4 nuclei w/ central endosomes
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Protozoa - Balantidium coli

Question Answer
What are the host(s) for Balantidium coli?(ZOONOTIC!) Nonhuman primates, humans, swine, birds, rats, guinea pigs, dogs, & arthropods. (Normally commensal inhabitants of cecum & colon)
What type of life cycle does Balantidium coli have?Direct fecal-oral transmission. infective cysts passed in feces → infective cysts are ingested → trophozoites escape from cysts & travel to lumen of cecum & colon (rarely able to invade the mucosa, but if they do, then they may cause Balantidiasis (balantidial dysentery)) → trophozoites encyst in distal gut prior to excretion in feces
What is the route of transmission for Balantidium coli?Fecal-oral, Direct
Pathology of Balantidium coli?Balantidium coli is able to initiate lesions in some hosts via invasion of mucosa & generation of deep ulcers. Ulcers are minute at early stages, but ulcerative colitis may result in fatality. In severe infections, large areas of epithelium may be destroyed. Perforation of the bowel is a rare, but reported sequela
Clinical signs of Balantidium coli?Can be asymptomatic, recurrent watery diarrhea, nausea, epigastric pain, vomiting, & intestinal colic in severe cases
How do you diagnose Balantidium coli?Identification of trophozoites in diarrheic stools (perform a direct smear) & cysts are found in formed stools (via a fecal flotation). Histopathology is confirmatory
How do you treat Balantidium coli?- Antibiotic therapy - Sanitation to prevent re-infection via ingestion of cysts or feces - Periodic screening for carrier animals
Describe life stages of Balantidium coli?Trophozoite & cyst
Describe the appearance of Balantidium coli, trophozoiteLarge, kidney-shaped macronucleus. Small micronucleus. Presence of cytostome (mouth). 50-150um in length. Body surface covered w/ rows of cilia
Describe the appearance of Balantidium coli, cystRound, clear cyst wall. Large, kidney-shaped macronucleus
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