Parasit Final 1

kelseyfmeyer's version from 2015-04-16 19:15

FLIES-->NEMATOCERA (Simulium, Culicoides)

Question Answer
Simulium belong to what group? aka?black flies, aka biting gnat or buffalo gnat
Simulium--> what do males/females eat? (which eat blood, or do both?)males don't suck blood, females DO (they are biting gnats after all)
Simulium--> what kinda bite/mouth?painful, blade like mouth parts w/ serrations to suck blood (SIM holding a serrated knife)
*Simulium--> Special thing to know about these?habitat is SWIFT FLOWING WATER!
Simulium is an intermediate host for 2 two things?leucocytozoon and river blindness (make a SIM that's BLIND)
*River blindness?Simulium (rivers are swift moving water)
Culicoides aka?biting midge, no-see-ums
what do culicoides look like?‘humped’ thorax, spotted wings (sweet spots)
Culicoides--> what do males/females eat? (which eat blood, or do both?)Males don't eat blood, females DO (first two flies both have a gender discrepancy--> biased nemas)
Culicoides--> where do they dwell?in moist soil and standing water
*Culicoides--> Pathogenicity?allergic dermatitis in horses aka queensland itch, sweat itch, sweet itch, or summer dermatitis
*Sweet itch?culicoides
Culicoides is an intermediate host for what two things?leucocytozoon, bird malaria (both culi and sim are leuco, and then the birds hang out with horses to get bird malaria)

FLIES-->BRACHYCERA (Tabanus, Chrysops)

Question Answer
Tabanus are which flies?horse flies
Chrysops are which flies?deer flies (hit a deer with my chrysler)
Tabanus+Chrysops--> what do the males/females eat? Females?Males eat nectar! Females eat blood (The male deer and horses are sweeter, like nectar)
Chrysops looks like?banded wings (if you hit a deer, you're going to be wearing stripes in the big house)
Tabanus+Chrysops--> what is the life cycle like?eggs on vegetation or foliage overhanging water. 1st and 2nd stage do not feed, 3rd stage does. Larva can overwinter by digging into soil.
Tabanus+Chrysops--> mouth parts?blade-like and sponging (giving deer and horses a sponge bath is a strange slice of life)
Tabanus+Chrysops--> pathogenicity they cause?they have blade-like slicing mouthparts, and then they sponge up blood, this process leaves a wound which other flies can then take advantage of

FLIES--> BRACHYCERA--> BITING MUSCOID (Stomoxys, Haematobia)

Question Answer
Stomoxys--> what does this fly look like?checkerboard appearance (moxy with her checker hat)
Stomoyxs--> aka?stable fly (STomo STable)
Stomoyxs--> mouthparts? what do males/females eat?Bayonet-like mouthparts - Both male/female stable flies suck blood
Stomoyxs--> intermediate host for what?Habronema (stomach worm in horse, can be cutaneous) (STOMo STOMache. remember moxy's bad HABits with stomachs)
Haematobia--> aka?horn fly (HAEM(blood) makes me HORNY)
Haematobia--> mouthparts? what do males/females eat?Bayonet-like mouthparts - male/female suck bloods
*Haematobia--> big thing to know?ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE in cattle industry--> lose meat and leather and milk
Where might you find a haematobia?Found on backs of cattle (on top line of animal or around the withers); lesser extent on horses. May cluster around base of horns
where does haematobia lay its eggs?in FRESH poop (horny blood means even fresh poop
Haematobia--> IH for what?Stephanofilaria stilesi, a filarial parasite of the skin of cattle (steph has a haem problem)

FLIES--> BRACHYCERA--> (Melophagus and/or Pseudolynchia)

Question Answer
Melophagus ovinus--> aka?Sheep keds (wingless, has to walk, so wears keds)
Melophagus ovinus--> looks like?NO WINGS, dorsoventrally flattened (sheep MELOn for PHAGing)
*Melophagus ovinus--> Unique feature?“Modified” Complex Metamorphosis--> larvae retained within abdomen of female, nursing them during development with uterine gland secretions
where does melophagus ovinus live?spends entire life on host (sheep) in the wool
what is modified complex metamorphosis? who does this?larvae retained within abdomen of female, nursing them during development with uterine gland secretions. Melophagus ovinus/pseudolynchia does this
Psuedolynchia--> aka?louse flies
Psuedolynchia--> affect what animal?birds
Do Psuedolynchia have wings?yes! only melophagus doesnt
Psuedolynchia--> IH for what?for Haemoproteus columbae --> Pigeon Malaria (pseudo=bird=pigeon malaria--from colombia)
where do louse flies (pseudolynchia) live?spend entire life on host (birds) (pseudo bird has pseudo louse. has wings because birds have wings, melo doesnt have wings bc sheep dont have wings)


Question Answer
Name The facultative flies (don't look above, cheater)lucilia, sarcophagia (flesh flies), calliphora (blow flies)
primary and secondary--> which term applies to being obligatory or facultative?1* is obligatory, 2* is facultative
which fly causes fly strike, in which animal?Blow Fly (Calliphora) and Flesh Fly (Sarcophaga) listed in the DES, but long notes say "any cutaneous miyasis" can cause this
Lucilia--> aka? 1* or 2*?green bottle fly, 2*
Calliphora--> aka? 1* or 2*?aka blow fly, 2* (facultative)
Sarcophaga--> aka? 1* or 2*?aka flesh fly, 2* (facultative)
Cochliomyia--> aka? 1* or 2*?Aka screw worm, 1* (meaning obligatory)
*Unique thing to know about Cochliomyia?lives in FRESH WOUNDS
Cochliomyia---> what does it look like?3 dorsal thorax black stripes
3 dorsal thorax stripesCochliomyia (maggots have them too) (three big ol screw yous)
what 4 flies are the "bot" flies?Hypoderma, Oestrus, Gasterophilus, Cuterebra
Hypoderma--> aka? 1* or 2* ?Cattle grubs or ox warbles (cattle heel flies or ox warble flies), 1* (obligatory)
What is Hypoderma's life cycle like?adults have no functional mouth parts. Lay eggs on host (cattle)--> larvae burrow into skin, wander in SQ. Rest in esophagus or epidural fat near spinal cord. Then travel to back in Jan, Feb and then leaves host to burrow in ground and pupate. Fly emerges May-July.
*Unique thing to know about Hypoderma?YOU NEED TO TIME THE TX RIGHT! (summer or early autumn) The larvae goes skin--> esophagus+epidural fat near spinal cord--> skin. If you tx for the larvae when it is in the eso or epi, you are gonna get a bad inflammatory process and have a bad time, mmmkay?
Oestrus--> aka? 1* or 2* ?Nasal bot fly of sheep. 1*
What is the lifecycle like for oestrus?MODIFIED COMPLEX, deposited around nostrils, crawl in and anchor with oral mouth hooks. Proceed to frontal sinus to develop to 3rd stage. Then crawl back down and sneezed out. Pupate in soil.
*unique thing to know about oestrus?NASAL DISCHARGE IN A SHEEP
*what is "false gid" and what causes this?when the larvae of oestrus burrow past the cribiform plate and end up in the brain (called false gid bc gid is when there's a tapeworm cyst in the brain)
Gasterophilus aka? 1* or 2*?aka horse bot fly, 1*
preferred hosts of gasterophilus? horses, donkeys, mules and zebras
describe the life cycle of gasterophilushovers above and darts to fore legs of horse to lay eggs. Glue eggs to legs. Licking stimulates hatching and hitch ride to mouth. 1st stage in mucus membrane of mouth. 2nd in mouth and move to stomach (non glandular part of stomach). They pass in spring.
pathology caused by gasterophilus?actually not much. maybe horses irritable when eggs are being laid on them
Cuterebra aka? 1* or 2* ?aka wolves or warbles, 1*
preferred hosts of cuterebra?rabbits, mice, squirrels and chipmunks (dogs and cats occasionally, humans accidentally)
what is the lifecycle like for cuterebra?eggs laid near rodent burrows or along rabbit runs. Host brushes past and they hatch and crawl onto skin. They penetrate an orifice and then move along SQ. Mature larvae are produced in 1 month. Then drop out to pupate.
how does cuterebra affect cats and dogs?cerebral myiasis, is fatal and feline ischemic encephalopathy (not in Dan's review, only in the DES)
Why is mechanical removal of Hypoderma larvae in cattle a poor method of removal?larvae produce toxin, Rupture of the larvae during extraction may lead to localized inflammation and abscess formation


Question Answer
what do fleas look like?dark brown, wingless insects, with laterally compressed bodies-->smooth movement through hair and feathers.
what is the host specificity of fleas like?TRICK QUESTION, they have preference, NOT specificity
how do flea larvae survive?they eat flea frass aka flea dirt aka mom and dad's poop ( Larvae Love poop--alternatively, dont give me that frass young larvae!)
what do male vs flea-male (ha) fleas eat?both eat blood
which stage of the flea is parasitic?only the adult
resistant stage of the flea lifecycle?pupa
what determines when a larvae hatches?temp. dependent--> 2days to 2wk (fleas like it hot)
what is the full life-cycle stages of the flea?adult-->eggs-->larvae-->pupa
Ctenocephalides--> which flea is this?CAT/DOG flea
where does flea-allergy-dermatitis show up on a cat? dog?cat=back of new, dog=tail
what is a "comb" on a flea? which comb(s) does ctenocephalides have?a row of spikes on the body. ctenocephalides has both pronotal(pronotal is mullet) AND genal(moustache) combs!
hosts of Ctenocephalides?cats and/or dogs (felis or canis. hard to tell apart bc can infect each other)
Echidnophaga (gallinacea) aka? has which host?aka "stick tight" flea. Host is poulty (or blockhead)
how can you differentiate Echidnophaga gallinacea from other fleas?darker brown body, and BLOCK HEAD (head is block like, flattened front of face) (to be fair I'm sure it's smart for a flea)
who causes flea allergy dermatitis?Ctenocephalides
who is the carrier for fowl pox?Echidnophaga gallinacea
Echidnophagia is the carrier for what dz?fowl pox (bird one with chicken dz. The fleas get the pox, the pigeon malaria is the pseudo (P and P) )
Xenopsylla cheopis aka? what is it's host?aka oriental rat flea, host is a rat.
how can you differentiate Xenopsylla cheopis?Lack Genal and Pronotal comb, Look for VERTICAL ROD (rod-shape thickening) on mesothorax to differentiate. (I think she also said more rounded head in the review?) (IF THERE IS AN ARROW POINTING TO A ROD, BUT IT ISN'T VERTICLE, THEN IT ISNT XENOPSYLLA!) (xena warrior princess, even with the plague, will pick up her rod to fight AND be well kempt enough to not have a moustache or mullet)
what does Xenopsylla carry?Plague (yersinia pestis) & Tularemia (tulips on your grave from when you died from the plague)
Plague(yersinia pestis) & Tularemia carried by?Xenopsylla
Murine Typhus (rickettsial rash) is carried by who?Ctenocephalides and Xenopsylla (X out the rash you C)
directly vs indirectly induced dz from fleas--> explain this, examples?direct--> flea directly caused it, like flea-allergy-dermatitis, or anemia. Indirect is when the flea is like a vector, like with carrying the plague
Dipylidium caninum is carried by what?(remember this is a tapeworm which is zoonotic) Ctenocephalides (felis or canis)
(Dipetalonema reconditum is carried by who?)(rare parasite with microfilaria and is kinda like heartworm) Ctenocephalides (felis or canis) (looks like diphylidium, and is for cats and dogs just the same too)
What rabbit disease do fleas carry?Myxomatosis(Big head dz of rabbits)
Francisella tularensis carried by?mult species
Rickettsia typhus/Murine typhus carried by?Xenopsylla