Parasit - Ectoparasites

hirigudo's version from 2017-03-31 09:30

FLIES→NEMATOCERA (Simulium, Culicoides)

Question Answer
Simulium belong to what group? aka?Black flies, aka biting gnat or buffalo gnat
Simulium→ Males/females eat? (Which eat blood, or do both?)Males don't suck blood, females DO (they are biting gnats after all)
Simulium→ what kinda bite/mouth?Painful, blade like mouth parts w/ serrations to suck blood (SIM holding a serrated knife)
*Simulium→ Special thing to know about these?habitat is SWIFT FLOWING WATER!
Simulium is an IH for 2 2 things?Leucocytozoon & river blindness (make a SIM that's BLIND)
*River blindness?Simulium (rivers are swift moving water)
Culicoides aka?Biting midge, no-see-ums
Culicoides looks like?‘Humped’ thorax, spotted wings (sweet spots)
Culicoides→ what do males/females eat? (Which eat blood, or do both?)Males don't eat blood, females DO (first 2 flies both have a gender discrepancy→ biased nemas)
Culicoides→ where do they dwell?In moist soil & standing water
*Culicoides→ Pathogenicity?Allergic dermatitis in horses aka Queensland itch, sweat itch, sweet itch, or summer dermatitis
*Sweet itch?Culicoides
Culicoides is an IH for what 2 things?Leucocytozoon, bird malaria (both culi & sim are leuco & then the birds hang out w/ horses to get bird malaria)

FLIES→BRACHYCERA (Tabanus, Chrysops)

Question Answer
Tabanus are which flies?Horse flies
Chrysops are _ flies?Deer flies (hit a deer w/ my Chrysler)
Tabanus+Chrysops→ Males/females eat? Females?Males = nectar! Females = blood (Male deer & horses are sweeter, like nectar)
Chrysops looks like?banded wings (Hit a deer & you're going to be wearing stripes in the big house)
Tabanus+Chrysops→ Life cycle?Eggs on vegetation or foliage overhanging water. 1st & 2nd stage do not feed, 3rd stage does. Larva can overwinter by digging into soil.
Tabanus+Chrysops→ Mouth parts?Blade-like & sponging (giving deer & horses a sponge bath is a strange slice of life)
Tabanus+Chrysops→ Pathogenicity?Blade-like slicing mouthparts & sponge up blood, process leaves a wound which other flies take advantage of


Question Answer
Stomoxys→ Looks like?Checkerboard appearance (moxy w/ her checker hat)
Stomoxys→ aka?Stable fly (STomo STable)
Stomoxys→ Mouthparts? Males/females eat?Bayonet-like mouthparts - Both male/female stable flies eat blood
Stomoxys→ IH for?Habronema (stomach worm in horse, can be cutaneous) (STOMo STOMach. remember moxy's bad HABits w/ stomachs)
Haematobia→ aka?Horn fly (HAEM(blood) makes me HORNY...o.O)
Haematobia→ mouthparts? What do males/females eat?Bayonet-like mouthparts - male/female suck bloods
*Haematobia→ Big thing to know?ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE in cattle industry→ lose meat, leather & milk
Where might you find a Haematobia?Backs of cattle (on top line of animal or around the withers); lesser extent on horses. May cluster around base of horns
Where does haematobia lay its eggs?FRESH poop (horny blood means even fresh poop look hot)
Haematobia→ IH for what?Stephanofilaria stilesi, a filarial parasite of the skin of cattle (steph has a haem problem)
Haematobia+Stomoxys Males/females eatBLOOD both sexes drink blood! Both species have bayonet mouthparts!

FLIES→ BRACHYCERA→ (Melophagus and/or Pseudolynchia)

Question Answer
Melophagus ovinus→ aka?Sheep keds (wingless, has to walk, so wears keds)
Melophagus ovinus→ looks like?NO WINGS, dorsoventrally flattened (sheep MELOn for PHAGing)
*Melophagus ovinus→ Unique feature?WINGLESS also, “Modified” Complex Metamorphosis→ larvae retained w/in abdomen of female, nursing them during development w/ uterine gland secretions
Melophagus ovinus lives?Entire life on host (sheep) in wool
What is modified complex metamorphosis? Who?Larvae retained w/in abdomen of female, nursing them during development w/ uterine gland secretions. Melophagus ovinus/Pseudolynchia both do this
Pseudolynchia→ aka?Louse flies
Pseudolynchia→ Affects?Birds
Do Pseudolynchia have wings?Yes! Only Melophagus doesnt
Pseudolynchia→ IH for what?For Haemoproteus columbae → Pigeon Malaria (pseudo=bird=pigeon malaria - from Colombia)
Louse flies (Pseudolynchia) live?Entire life on host (birds) (pseudo bird has pseudo louse. Has wings bc birds have wings, melo doesnt have wings bc sheep dont have wings)


Question Answer
Why can 2° be good?Maggot Wound Debridement. Allantoin they secrete encourages epithelialization & It's good for tx multi-drug resistant orgs
1° & 2°→ oblig/facul?1° = obligatory, 2° = facultative
Causes fly strike?Blow Fly (Calliphora) & Flesh Fly (Sarcophaga) → but long notes say "any cutaneous myiasis"
Lucilia aka? 1° or 2°?green bottle fly, 2°
Calliphora aka? 1° or 2°?Blow fly, 2°
Sarcophaga aka? 1° or 2°?Flesh fly, 2°
Cochliomyia aka? 1° or 2°?Screw worm, 1°
Unique thing about Cochliomyia?Lives in FRESH WOUNDS
Cochliomyia looks like?3 dorsal thorax black stripes
3 dorsal thorax stripesCochliomyia (maggots have them too) (3 big ol screw yous)
4 "bot" flies?Hypoderma
Hypoderma aka? 1° or 2°?Cattle grubs or ox warbles or cattle heel flies, 1°
Hypoderma's life cycle?Adults = NO fxnal mouth parts. Lay eggs on host (cattle)→larvae burrow into skin, wander in SQ. Rest in esophagus or epidural fat near spinal cord. Travel to skin on back in Jan/Feb & leave host to pupate in soil. Fly emerges May-July.
Unique about Hypoderma?YOU MUST TIME THE TX RIGHT! (tx in summer or early autumn) larvae goes in skin→ esophagus+epidural fat near spinal cord→ skin. If you tx for larvae when it's in eso or epi, U get a bad inflammatory process!
Oestrus aka? 1° or 2°?Nasal bot fly of sheep. 1°
Lifecycle of oestrus?MODIFIED COMPLEX, Larvae (NO EGGS) deposited around nostrils, crawl in & anchor w/ oral mouth hooks→Frontal sinus→develop to 3rd stage→crawl back down & sneezed out→Pupate in soil.
Unique thing about oestrus?NASAL DISCHARGE IN SHEEP
"False gid" & what causes it?Larvae of oestrus burrow past the cribiform plate into the brain (true gid is when tapeworm cyst is in the brain)
Gasterophilus aka? 1° or 2°?aka horse bot fly, 1°
Preferred hosts of gasterophilus?Horses, donkeys, mules & zebras
Life cycle of Gasterophilushovers above & darts to legs of horse to lay eggs. Glue eggs to legs. Licking stimulates hatching & hitch ride to mouth. 1st stage in mucus membrane of mouth. 2nd in mouth & move to stomach (non glandular part of stomach). They pass in spring.
Pathology of gasterophilus?Actually not much. Maybe horses irritable when eggs are being laid on them
Cuterebra aka? 1° or 2°?aka wolves or warbles, 1°
preferred hosts of cuterebra?Rabbits, mice, squirrels & chipmunks (dogs & cats occasionally, humans accidentally)
Lifecycle of cuterebra?Eggs laid near rodent burrows or along rabbit runs. Host brushes past & they hatch & crawl onto skin. Penetrate an orifice & move along SQ. Mature larvae in 1 month. Drop out to pupate.
How does cuterebra affect cats & dogs?Cerebral myiasis, is fatal & feline ischemic encephalopathy (not in Dan's review, only in the DES)
Why is mechanical removal of Hypoderma larvae in cattle a poor method of removal?Larvae produce toxin, Rupture of the larvae during extraction may lead to localized inflammation & abscess formation


Question Answer
Fleas look like?Dark brown, wingless insects, w/ laterally compressed bodies→smooth movement through hair & feathers
Host specificity of fleas like?TRICK Q! Have preference, NOT specificity
How do flea larvae survive?Eat flea frass aka flea dirt aka mom/dad's poop (Larvae Love poop) & Dipylidium proglottid segments
Male/females fleas eat?Blood
Stage of the flea that’s parasiticOnly the adult (can go 6mo btwn meals)
Resistant stage of flea lifecycle?Pupa
Determines when a larvae hatches?Temp Dependent→ 2days to 2wk (fleas like it hot)
What’s the full life stages of fleas?adult→eggs→larvae→pupa
Ctenocephalidies xmits? Is IH to which parasite?Xmits Dipetalonema reconditum (heartworm mimic) & Murine Typhus (Rickettsial Rash)
IH to Dipylidium Caninum
Where does flea-allergy-dermatitis show up on a cat? Dog?Cat=back of neck, dog=tail
What is a "comb" on a flea? Which comb(s) does Ctenocephalides have?A row of spikes on the body. Ctenocephalides has both pronotal(mullet) & genal(moustache) combs!
Hosts of Ctenocephalides?Cats and/or dogs (felis or canis. hard to tell apart bc can infect each other)
Echidnophaga gallinacea aka? Which host?Aka "stick tight" flea. Host is poultry (blockhead)
Differentiate Echidnophaga gallinacea from other fleas?Darker brown body & BLOCK HEAD (head is block like, flattened front of face)
Causes flea allergy dermatitis?Ctenocephalides
Carrier for fowl pox & plague?Echidnophaga gallinacea (Xenopsylla also vectors plague)
Echidnophaga is the carrier for what dz?Fowl pox (bird one w/ chicken dz. Fleas get the pox, Pigeon malaria is the pseudo (P & P) )
Xenopsylla cheopis aka? Host?Aka oriental rat flea, host = rat.
Differentiate Xenopsylla cheopis?Lack Genal & Pronotal comb, Look for VERTICAL ROD (rod-shape thickening) on mesothorax. (More rounded head) ((IF THERE IS AN ARROW POINTING TO A ROD, BUT IT ISN'T VERTICLE, THEN IT ISNT XENOPSYLLA!) (xena warrior princess, even w/ the plague, will pick up her rod to fight & be well kempt enough to not have a moustache or mullet)
Xenopsylla carries?Plague (yersinia pestis), Murine Typhus & Tularemia (Xena put tulips on your grave from when you had that rash & died of the plague)
Plague (Yersinia pestis) & Tularemia carried by?Xenopsylla (E. Gallinacea also vectors Plague)
Murine Typhus (rickettsial rash) is carried by?Ctenocephalides & Xenopsylla (X out the rash you C)
Directly vs indirectly induced dz from fleas→ Explain? Examples?Direct→ flea directly caused it, like flea-allergy-dermatitis, or anemia. Indirect = flea is a vector, like w/ carrying the plague
Dipylidium caninum is carried by?(Zoonotic tapeworm) Ctenocephalides (felis or canis) & Pulex
Dipetalonema reconditum is carried by?(Rare parasite w/ microfilaria & like heartworm) Ctenocephalides (felis or canis) (looks like diphylidium & is for cats & dogs just the same too)
Pulex: IH host for?Dipylidium caninum
Francisella tularensis carried by?Multi species
Pulex host?HUMANS (P. irritans)
Raccons, opossums & giant anteaters