Paper 2 Abnormal

mikikoru's version from 2017-05-14 21:41

How Do We Define or Determine Abnormal Behavior?

Question Answer
Diagnosisidentifying and classifying abnormal behavior using manuals.
The Medical model (mental illness criterion)Psychopath, diagnosis based on clinician, diagnostic manuals.
Medical Model evaluationBeing diagnosed as “sick” means you are not responsible for your acts
Most mental disorders cannot be linked to your brain
Deviation from social normsUndesirable or anti-social behavior, viewed by the majority of people in a given society.
What is seen as "Normal"Social, historical, and cultural factors play a role
Deviation from social norms evaluationCriteria is not objective or stable (views can change over time)
Could lead to discrimination against those that are different from the majority
Culture-bound syndromes (Zhang 1998)
The Mental Health Model of normality (Jahoda 1958)Criteria for what might constitute normal psychological health (no stress, mental illness, healthy relationships, realistic, independence).

Discuss cultural and ethical considerations in diagnosis.

Question Answer
Cultural considerationsBias.
Different cultural groups have different attitudes towards disorders.
Culture-bound syndromes could be difficult to recognize for clinicians and could lead to misdiagnosis
Zhang (1998)neurasthenia is Chinese variation of depression
Ethical considerationsCorrect diagnosis and treatment
Bias in diagnosis (gender, ethnicity, age).
Clinicians may also be influenced by confirmation bias (ignoring information that contradicts their original diagnosis)
Rosser (1992)women more likely than men to be diagnosed
Women are diagnosed more than males because theyBehave in ways that people label as mental disorders.
Taught to express their emotions, while men are trained to control them.
Have unequal social positions and greater discrimination, more likely to experience trauma-inducing circumstances

Types of Psychological Disorders

Question Answer
Anxiety disorderPost-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
Eating disorderbulimia nervosa
Bulimia nervosaBinge-eating, followed by purging (vomiting, losing weight, dieting, etc.)
Bulimia nervosa symptoms (physiological)Nutritional deficiencies could lead to fatigue, digestive problems.
Bulimia nervosa symptoms (cognitive)Distorted body image, low self-esteem
Bulimia nervosa symptoms (emotional)Fear of being fat, body dissatisfaction, depressed mood

Etiologies (causes) of one eating disorder

Question Answer
Kendler (1991)Twin research to study genetic vulnerability in bulimia nervosa
ProcedureA sample of female twins participated in the study. One twin of each pair had bulimia.
Type of studyLongitudinal (over time) study and researchers conducted interviews to see if the other twin would develop bulimia and if concordance rates were higher in identical or fraternal twins.
ResultsConcordance rate higher for identical twins.
EvaluationResults show a heritability of 55% but this leaves 45% for other factors.
Genetic vulnerability might develop bulimia, but other factors trigger the disorder.
Environmental factors not taken into account (dysfunctional environment could have been a trigger.)
Findings cannot be generalized (gender bias).

Cognitive and sociocultural factors

Question Answer
Fallon and Rozin (1985)Many patients with eating disorders suffer from the cognitive delusion that they are fat.
Procedureshowed nine pictures of different body shapes, from very thin to very heavy, to both sexes in the United States
People were askedindicate the body shape most similar, like their ideal body shape, and the body shape of the opposite sex to which they would be most attracted.
WomenChose heavier than their own bodies for their most similar and a much thinner body shape for their ideal (their perception caused them to lose weight).
MenChose closer to their own shape (satisfaction).
Jaeger (2002)Body shapes represented in the media could encourage dissatisfaction with body shape and lead to dieting behavior.
Sociocultural ideals caused Europe and Mediterranean women to diet.

Cultural variation in the prevalence of bulimia

Question Answer
Becker (2002)Impact of introduction of Western television on disordered eating patterns among Fijian adolescent girls
Television introduced1995 and again in 1998; no pressure to be thin prior.
ParticipantsSecondary school girls in Fiji.
ResultsIncrease dieting and purging to control weight (0% in 1995 to 11% in 1998).
High prevalence caused byExposure to western television. These symptoms only appeared after Western television was introduced.


Question Answer
Zhang (1998)Culture bound syndromes
AimPeople from traditional cultures may not distinguish between emotions and physical symptoms
ProcedureOnly sixteen of close to 20,000 people in China said they suffered from a mood disorder at some point in their life (significantly lower than in the U.S.)
ResultsDepression rare in China, because many diagnosed with neurasthenia.
Chinese variation of depression.


Question Answer
Rosenhan (1973)Being sane in insane places.
AimTo test reliability and validity of diagnosis in a natural setting. Can psychiatrists distinguish between abnormal and normal behavior?
ParticipantsCovert (not a secret) participant observation with 8 participants (5 men, 3 women).
ProcedureParticipants went to twelve hospitals in the US and stated that they were hearing voices.
ResultsAll pseudo-patients admitted and all but one diagnosed with schizophrenia.
All pseudo-patients behaved normally while hospitalized because they could only get out if the staff perceived them to be well.
Pseudo-patients took notes (this was actually interpreted by the staff as a symptom of their illness)
LengthIt took 7 to 52 days before patients released and labelled “schizophrenia in remission”
Follow-upStaff at a hospital told they were being sent pseudo-patients.
41 identified as imposters by at least one staff member, but no imposters actually sent.
Reveals issues with validity and reliability of diagnosis.
EvaluationRevision of diagnostic procedures. The development of diagnostic manuals have increased reliability and validity of diagnosis.
Ethical issuesStaff members were deceived in both studies.
In the second study, actual patients may not have received proper treatment because the staff was looking for imposters.


Question Answer
Rosser (1992)Is There Androcentric Bias in Psychiatric Diagnosis?
Most therapistsare men.
Diagnosis in womenUnder-diagnosis of alcoholism.
Over-diagnosis of depression (too many drugs to combat depression, higher rates of drugs given out than men).

Examine attachment in childhood and its role in the subsequent formation of relationships.

Question Answer
AttachmentDesire to be near a figure, returning to the attachment figure for comfort, distress when split away.
Attachment BehaviorHuman infants react with anxiety to separation away from their mother.
Attachment TheoryBowlby (close relationship between mother and child, with behaviors like smiling, grasping and crying as signals).
Ainsworth (1970)Strange situation (secure, avoidant, ambivalent, disorganized attachment).
Secure AttachmentDevelop mature, trusting, long-lasting adult relationships
Avoidant AttachmentDifficulty in trusting others and developing intimate relationships.
Ambivalent AttachmentWant to be close partners but worry their affection will not be returned by their partner.
Disorganized AttachmentChaotic, explosive, abusive, and untrusting even though there is a want for security.
BowlbyAttachment Theory.
Working Model.
Bowlby’s Working ModelWill determine ideas about attachments, one’s self and how one relates with others.
Bowlby’s Working Model reproductionLater relationships.
Bowlby’s Working Model and schemaExperiences with attachment figures during infancy, childhood and adolescence result in expectations/schemas that are unchanged for the rest of their life.

Discuss the formation and development of gender roles.

Question Answer
After birthFirst thing noticed is biological sex.
Gender identityOne’s own perception of being male or female.
DevelopmentOccurs at age seven.
Gender constancyYou remain the same no matter what clothes you put on.
Whiting and Edwards (1973)Girls were more nurturing, boys more aggressive and dominant.
Dr. Money (1972)“Gender neutrality”
Children born genetically as female, but raised as boysThought themselves as boys. Possible to reassign sex within first two years of life.

Social Variables

Question Answer
Socioeconomic statusfamily income and education level plays a role in a child’s development. Parenting and environmental enrichment are variables also.
Bandura and Ross (1961)Social Learning Theory
Social Learning TheoryChildren decide which actions to adopt
Three types of Reinforcers for behaviorPositive reinforcement from others for appropriate behavior
Direct ReinforcementExperienced directly by learner
Vicarious ReinforcementObserve the consequences of behavior of others
Self-ReinforcementFeelings of pleasure gauged by one's own standards