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PA&H week 8 part 2

rename
winniesmith2's version from 2017-12-04 16:03

Section 1

Question Answer
Clemes study; Using sit-to-stand workstations in offices; is there a compensation effect? method• Office workers (n = 40; 55% female) were given a WorkFit‐S, sit‐to‐stand workstation for 3 months. Participants completed assessments at baseline (before workstation installation), 1 wk and 6 wk after the introduction of the workstation, and again at 3 months (12wk) (postintervention). • Posture and PA were assessed using the activPAL inclinometer and ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometer, which participants wore for 7 d during each measurement phase.
Clemes study, sit to stand; Results Sitting at work decreased by 20% BUT sitting outside of work increased by 6%. (Standing at your desk makes you feel so healthy, so you go straight home and sit down).
Downing; interventions to reduce SB in 0-5 year olds; a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials; method31 studies were included in the systematic review and 17 studies in the meta‐analysis.
Downing; interventions to reduce SB in 0-5 year olds; a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials; results1) 18 focused on reducing screen‐time (9 in pre‐ school/child care, 7 in the home, 3 in primary care, 3 community). 10 were effective. 2) 13 focused on reducing sedentary time (10 pre‐school/childcare, 1 in the home, 2 community. 4 were effective. 3) Mostly education based 4) Those that involved parents were more successful
Downing; interventions to reduce SB in 0-5 year olds; a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials; Key findings • Interventions to reduce screen time and overall sedentary behaviour in early childhood have a significant overall effect of 17 and 19 min/day, respectively • Despite heterogeneity in study methods and results, overall interventions to reduce sedentary behaviour in early childhood show significant reductions, suggesting that this may be an opportune time to intervene.
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Section 2

Question Answer
Altenburg; Effectiveness of intervention strategies exclusively targeting reductions in children's sedentary time; a systematic review of the literature; results of analysis21 intervention studies, of which 8 studies scored moderate on methodological quality and 13 studies scored weak. 4 out of eight moderate quality studies reported significant beneficial intervention effects.
Altenburg; Effectiveness of intervention strategies exclusively targeting reductions in children's sedentary time; a systematic review of the literature; key findings Encouragement of a TV turnoff week and implementing standing desks in classrooms as promising strategies. • Due to a lack of high quality studies and inconsistent findings, we found no convincing evidence for the effectiveness of existing interventions targeting solely sedentary behaviour. • Future studies apply mediation analyses to explore which strategies are most effective. • To increase the effectiveness of interventions, knowledge of children’s motives to engage in sedentary behaviour is required, as well as their opinion on potentially effective intervention strategies.
Biddle; interventions designed to reduce SB in young people; a review of reviews ; Objective • To synthesise systematic reviews and meta‐analyses of interventions aimed at decreasing sedentary behaviours among children and adolescents.
Biddle; interventions designed to reduce SB in young people; a review of reviews ; Methods • Included articles were English language systematic reviews or meta‐ analyses of interventions aiming at reducing sedentary behaviour in children (<11 years) and adolescents (12–18 years).
Biddle; interventions designed to reduce SB in young people; a review of reviews ; Results • 10 papers met the inclusion criteria and were analysed. All reviews concluded some level of effectiveness in reducing time spent in sedentary behaviour. When an effect size was reported, there was a small but significant reduction in sedentary time (highest effect size=−0.29; CI −0.35 to −0.22). • Moderator analyses showed a trend favouring interventions with children younger than 6 years. • Effective strategies include the involvement of family, behavioural interventions and electronic TV monitoring devices.
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Section 3

Question Answer
What are the 6 intervention components/strategies used1. informational. 2. behavioural. 3. Environmental. 4. Social support strategies
Informational ( passive information, education) and cognitive (general cognitive strategies, goal setting, problem solving and relapse prevention);
Behavioural (pre‐planning, reminders, prompt for desired behaviours, skill building, monitoring and feedback, reinforcement for behaviour and contingent reward for meeting goals);
Environmental (changes in the environment at home, school and community made to facilitate desired changes and inhibit undesired changes and electronic TV monitoring device)
Social support strategies (involvement of parents or other significant caregivers). The most frequently cited strategies were goal setting, self‐monitoring of progress, pre‐ planning, problem solving, positive reinforcement and contingent feedback systems.
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Section 4

Question Answer
Clemes; stand out in class study; baseline data(Valid activPAL data provided from 43/54 children) Total sitting on school day; 9.5hrs/day (69% wake time). Total sitting on a non-school day; 10.5hrs/d (70% wake time). 70% of class time was spent sitting and 71% of after school hours. Children who sat for longer during school hours also sat for longer after school.
Clemes; stand out in class study; results NS difference in % of time for sitting, standing or stepping in control group. Nor, the % of time spent standing for intervention class. But signif difference of p=0.03 for sitting time ( -9.8 +/- 16.5) and signif difference of p= 0.002 for % time stepping (6.3 +/- 6.8)
Sit to stand interventions in the classroomIncorporating sit to stand desks into classrooms appears to be an effective way of reducing classroom sitting in children from a range of socio-economic groups and cultures (Clemes et al 2016). However, longer term efficacy trials are needed to determine the impact on children's health, cognition and academic achievement. (Sherry 2016)
Babic; intervention to reduce recreational screen time in adolescents; outcomes and mediators from the 'Switch-off 4 healthy minds' (S4HM) cluster randomized control trial; what did it do S4HM intervention on recreational screen-time in adolescents (6 month). 322 adolescent ppts reported exceeding recreation screen time recommendations (>2h/day). The S4HM intervention was guided by self-determination theory (autonomous motivation) and included; an interactive seminar, eHealth messaging, a behavioural contract and parental newsletters.
Babic; S4HM; results Significant reductions in screen‐ time were observed in both groups from baseline to post‐test (S4HM = −50.5 min/day, p< 0.001; Control=−29.2 min/day, p=0.030) . Autonomous motivation was found to mediate the effect of the intervention on screen time
Babic; S4HM; key findings Participants in both the S4HM intervention and control groups significantly reduced their screen‐time, with no group‐by‐time effects. Enhancing autonomous motivation might be a useful intervention target for trials aimed at reducing adolescents' recreational screen‐time.
Marsh; Family-based interventions for reducing sedentary time in youth; a systematic review of randomized controlled trials; key findings and results. 8 home based and 2 school based interventions included. Home-based interventions were effective with respect to SB- but parental involvement was off supervisory nature, sample sizes to small and follow-up too short to comment on effect in long term. 2 School studies, signif improvements in screen based media use. (targeted multiple health behav. had med-high parental involvement). Studies that had a parental component of med-high intensity were consistently associated with signif. changes in sedentary behav (in both home and school)
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Section 5

Question Answer
Potential reasons for a lack of success in SB interventions?• Too much focus on TV viewing?! • Poor evaluation • Length of time/duration of follow‐up • Study quality • Not targeting the right populations • Not targeting the right mediators or mechanisms of change (parents aren’t targeted) • Interventions aren’t being designed to overcome barriers • Not targeting the right time of day • Not intervening in the right setting
Increasing physical activity/decreasing sedentary time of children in childcare centres/nurseriesActive learning, replacing sitting with standing, play equipment, bring the inside outside.
Increasing physical activity/decreasing sedentary time of children during schoolplayground markings, sitting to stand desk and/or exercise balls. Class room energizer / activity breaks/ active learning.
Increasing physical activity/decreasing sedentary time of children at homeParental rules and restrictions. Children participating in cooking/chores. Charting good behaviour. Active games. Walk/cycle/scoot to school. Playing outside and be active role models.
Increasing physical activity/decreasing sedentary time of adults in officeusing standing or treadmill desks instead of standing desks.
Example short answer question• Briefly describe a strategy/strategies which could be adopted to reduce screen‐time in the home environment (5 marks)
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