PA&H week 8 part 1

winniesmith2's version from 2017-12-12 17:35

Section 1

Question Answer
What is sedentary behaviour?any waking behaviour characterized by an energy expenditure ≤1.5 METs while in a sitting or reclining posture. A distinct group of behaviours characterised by sitting or reclining.
When is the term 'inactive' used to describe those who are performing insufficient amounts of MVPA (ie. not meeting specified PA guidelines.
Describe the movement continuumgoes from low energy expenditure to high. Sleep -> sedentary behaviour -> light movement -> MPA -> VPA. Where most interventions intervene is between light movement and MPA.
Differentiating qualities between PA and SB; Frequency across the day PA; Low-likely to be no more than once. SB; High- regular, prolonged bouts of SB likely.
Differentiating qualities between PA and SB; durationPA; short, at least for structured exercise (e.g. 30 mins). SB; Long, such as 2-3 hours of TV viewing or prolonged sitting at work.
Differentiating qualities between PA and SB; effortPA; Moderate to high. SB; low
Differentiating qualities between PA and SB; conscious processingPA; Moderate to high, requires planning. SB; low and habitual
What is the PA transition shift from traditional lifestyles to modern western lifestyle. Therefore this is a shift from labor-intensive occupations to sedentary service-oriented occupations. A shift from walking being the most common form of transportation to door to door motorised transport and from little leisure time to more and more sedentary pursuits. Therefore PA levels shift from substantial Moderate intensity activity and occasional vigorous required to substantial low intensity activity and vigorous being rarely required. ----> obesity, hypertension, coronary artery disease, stroke, type 2 D, cancer etc = higher mortality rates, lower life expectancy.

Section 2

Question Answer
What are the 3 big contexts for SBLeisure-time (socialising, tv and computers-screen time, ,reading; listing to music) Motorised transport. School/work (sitting at school or work and homework).
Why do we need to focus more on SBSB is 'new' and needs greater attention. Ubiquitous. Habitual. Reinforcing. Cultural and environmental shifts required. Need to think about it differently (from PA)
Prevalence of SB - BHFestimates that the average man in the UK spends the equivalent of 78 days each year sitting. The average woman in the UK spends around 74 days each year sitting.
Prevalence of SB - Ofcom the average UK adult spends 1,779 minutes – almost 30 hours – a week watching TV. This is equivalent to 64 days a year.
Prevalence of SB on weekdays and weekends (NHS)Higher proportion of people were sedentary for 6 or more hours per day on weekends. Similar percent between girls and boys of the same age group. Girls ages 13-15 slightly more sedentary on weekdays (10 percent)
Ofcom- estimated weekly hours of media consumption at home or elsewhere among users by age ; 2016 Older you get the more hours spent on media (bar 5-7 and tv use decreases from 3 to 7 and then increases again up to 15. Ages 12-15 most hours- spend 20hours 6mins on internet. TV levels relatively consistent for all ages.
BHF - PA stats. Adults reporting 6+ hours of SB time on weekdays. U shaped curve. Starts at 16-24 (45%) then decreases for 25-34 yrs and 35-44 yrs (lowest at 15%) then increases. 65-74 mid 40% and then 85+ highest at 60%.
BHF- PA stats. Adults reporting 6+ hours of SB time on weekends same pattern as weekdays for age groups but each group shifts up in % (around 10% increase).
(the stormont study- Clemes) SB in adults, patterns Those who sit the most at work (>60% of daily sitting), also sit for longer in leisure time.
PA guidelines for early years (Under 5s)should minimise the amount of time spent being sedentary (being restrained or sitting) for extend periods (except time spent sleeping). 180 mins - guidelines for ALL age groups recommend decreasing time spent sedentary

Section 3

Question Answer
What is an intervention‘the action or process of intervening’
What is a health care intervention ‘Any type of treatment, preventive care, or test that a person could take or undergo to improve health or to help with a particular problem. Health care interventions can include drugs (either prescription drugs or drugs that can be bought without a prescription), foods, supplements (such as vitamins), vaccinations, screening tests (to rule out a certain disease), exercises (to improve fitness), hospital treatment, and certain kinds of programmes of care (such as physical therapy or information based materials)’.
Factors to consider when planning an interventionWhat and why (behaviour/problem). Who (population of interest). context; where and when (setting/environment). How (strategies for behaviour change). Mechanisms of change (mediators). Possible target groups (moderators) How (potential barriers/motivations).
What is a mediatoran intervening variable that is necessary to complete a cause‐effect link between an intervention program and physical activity. It's changeable correlate/determinate.
What is a moderator an interaction variable that affects the direction, strength, or both of the relationship between an intervention and mediator or mediator and physical activity; stratification by the moderator variable will show different strength relationships between the program and physical activity behaviour. Non changeable; eg. age
What are intervention strategies e plans of action designed to achieve a long‐term or overall aim
What are behaviour change methods/techniques is a theory‐based method for changing one or several determinants of behaviour such as a person's self‐efficacy or attitude towards the behaviour.
How to reduce sitting time? A review of behaviour change strategies used in SB reduction among adults. Gardner (pg18). Results; key findings. 37 behaviour change techniques were each used in at least one intervention. 3 most frequently observed behaviour change techniques. 14 techniques were found to be promising.
in Gardner study; what were the 3 most frequently observed behaviour change techniques • Setting behavioural goals (23 interventions; 61%), • Providing unspecified forms of social support (23 interventions; 61%) • Adding objects to the environment (19 interventions; 50%).
in Gardner study; what 14 techniques were found to be promising• Self‐monitoring of behaviour (promise ratio = 3.5), • Adding objects to the environment (ratio = 3.5), • Instruction on how to perform the behaviour (ratio = 2.3), • Reviewing behavioural goals, • Providing information on health consequences, • Behaviour substitution (each used in 6 interventions, ratios = 2.0). • Restructuring the physical environment (used in 5 interventions) • Problem solving (4 interventions) • Discrepancy between current behaviour and goal (2 interventions) • Feedback on behaviour (2 interventions) • Providing practical social support (2 interventions), • Social comparison (2 interventions) • Behavioural practice or rehearsal (2 interventions) • Restructuring the social environment (2 interventions) were used in promising interventions only.
Carr. BMJ; Multicomponent intervention to reduce daily sedentary time; a randomised controlled trial. What did it doinactive office workers randomised into an intervention (n=23) or wait list control group (n=17). 12 week intervention consisting of access to a portable pedal machine, motivational website containing tips to reduce SB time, weekly emails and a pedometer.
Carr. BMJ; Multicomponent intervention to reduce daily sedentary time; a randomised controlled trial; resultsSignif reduction in SB post intervention. Increases in time spent in light PA and MVPA also seen relative to controls and baseline.

Section 4