PA&H lecture 1

winniesmith1's version from 2017-03-01 16:56

Section 1

Question Answer
What is exercise science? (Andy Smith 2004)a theory-based, research-led discipline that seeks applied solutions to health problems related to physical inactivity, and which aims to understand and promote individual and public health and wellbeing through evidence-based physical activity interventions
What is physical activity? (Caspersen)any bodily movement produced by the skeletal muscles that results in a substantial increase in energy expenditure above resting levels
What does FITT formula stand for?Frequency, Intensity, Time, Type
What is exercise?physical activity that is planned, structured, repetitive, and results in improvement or maintenance of one or more facets of physical fitness
What is physical fitness?a set of attributes (cardiorespiratory endurance, power, etc.) that people have or achieve that relate to their ability to perform physical activity
What is sedentary behaviour? (SBRN 2012)as any waking behaviour characterized by an energy expenditure ≤1.5 METs while in a sitting or reclining posture
What is health? (WHO 1946)Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity

Section 2

Question Answer
How many deaths does physical activity cause?3.2 million deaths globally. 4th leading risk factor for global mortality.
Where does the high burden of morbidity and disability down to physical inactivity occur the mostin low- and middle- income countries.
Describe the behavioural epidemiology frameworkFirst establish links and measure PA. Then correlate data/determinants identified. Next interventions formed. Finally translation of these interventions into practice,
How is physical activity (PA) characterized by contexts: leisure-time or occupational
is sedentary behaviour and physical inactivity the same thing?No. They are distinct constructs. You can be inactive but not sedentary or active and sedentary etc.

Section 3

Question Answer
What are cross sectional studies  One time measurement (i.e. no follow-up)  Often large sample of population examined at a given time. Sometimes no direct contact.  Association between different variables then examined  Observational rather than experimental design (i.e. nothing is being manipulated/changed)
What are randomized controlled trials  Participants screened for (in)eligibility - in theory, all ‘matched’  Participants divided into experimental group(s) or control group  Groups ‘followed up’ and compared for evidence change 
What are cohort/longitudinal studies  Participants often grouped on basis of selfdetermined risk (e.g. low PA and high PA groups) then tracked over time (i.e. longitudinal)  Observational rather than experimental design (i.e. nothing is being manipulated/changed)