PA and Health lecture 2 part 1

winniesmith2's version from 2017-10-14 13:37

Section 1

Question Answer
Content areas of physical activity and health: Epidemiology Association between physical activity and prevention and treatment of disease and injury such as CHD, stroke, cancers, diabetes, obesity, osteoporosis, back pain, falls, mental health and wellbeing
Patterns of participationLevels of physical activity in the whole population, differences between sub-groups, differences between and within countries. Trends over time, forward projections
Understanding levels of physical activityStudy what factors are associated with levels of activity and what predicts levels of activity. Application and development of theories to explain behaviour and help develop interventions
Dose-response issuesDifferent types, intensity, frequency and duration of activity and the various benefits associated with them; time frame for benefits: acute vs chronic
Measurement issuesActivity / fitness / behaviour. Self-report vs objective. Different populations (children/young people and adults / older adults)
Application and ImplementationDevelop interventions using health promotion theory and practice Pilot / efficacy / effectiveness / demonstration / implementation / dissemination
Strategies (how)1. Individual skills 2. Community action 3. Supportive environments – physical and social 4. Reorient health services 5. Health public policy
Settings (where)Nurseries, schools, workplaces, home, church/faith, health care, community, care homes
Population (who)Babies, children, young people, adults, older adults, women, low SES, ethnic groups

Section 2

Question Answer
Why do we measure PA/SB?• Epidemiological research – To establish the relationship between PA, SB and health • Monitoring of PA/SB levels amongst the population – To identify problems/progress – Assess trends over time • Research into correlates and determinants of PA/SB – To broaden our understanding and plan interventions • Evaluation of interventions – Assess efficacy and effectiveness • Expand our understanding and provide advocacy for policy decisions
what can we measure?• Energy expenditure energy intake (food) – work done (PA) = weight loss/gain • Physical fitness • Human movement • Human behaviour. FITT
how do we assess intensity?• Often assessed using METs • Short for ‘metabolic equivalent’ • A unit used to describe the energy cost of physical activities relative to resting/’basal’ values • 1 MET = 1 kcal/kg/hour • Equivalent energy cost of sitting quietly
Describe the compendium of PA (adults) Ainsworth• Evidence-based assessment of MET values • Energy costs of 821 activities • 21 categories
Describe the compendium of PA (youth) Butte• Energy costs of 196 activities • 16 categories • Four age groups – 6-9, 10-12, 13-15 and 16-18
How do we measure PA?• Depends on: – Data you want to collect • Energy expenditure, fitness, human movement, human behaviour? – Scale of data collection – Population group being studied – Time and resources available
Reliability = consistency or stability of the measurement process across time, subjects or observers
Validity= the extent to which a test measures what it intends to measure
in epidemiologic studies, instruments must meet four important criteria valid, reliable, practical, non reactive

Section 3

Question Answer
Describe subjective measures or 'self-report' • Practical on a large scale, standardised process • Can be done by telephone, face to face, by post, or online • Relatively inexpensive (compared to other) • Easy to use / complete • Quick • Can be modified to capture the aspects of physical activity we are interested in • Can be repeated to assess trends over time – BUT methods and measures must stay the same!
Pros of subjective measures or self report • Measurement of ‘real life’ activity (behaviour) • Feasible on a large scale • Cheap, easy, convenient (can be conducted remotely) • Detailed information on activities (i.e. type, duration, frequency etc.)
cons of subjective measures or self report • Recall problems (worse in specific population groups) • Recall bias (i.e. ‘socially desirable responding’) • Inaccurate measure of energy expenditure • Particular problems associated with lifestyle/incidental activity