PA and H, week 6

winniesmith2's version from 2017-12-11 17:30

Section 1

Question Answer
When did the development of workplace health start/ whats its focus • Gradual increase over the last 30-40 years • Initial focus on “fitness” • Incidental physical activity e.g. walking, stair climbing, active commuting • Shifting focus to holistic agenda – Physical activity -> nutrition, diet, smoking, mental health etc. – Individual -> workplace setting: environment and policy • New health-related terms: – Workability, Presenteeism
Workplace contribution to inactivity64% adults travel to work by car National Travel Survey 2016 (Department for Transport, 2017). 11% walk, 4% cycle. High proportion of adults employed in sedentary occupations.
Why the workplace?“Individuals may spend up to 60% of their waking hours in the workplace”. and 1/3 or “75.1% of the UK population are in employment” - can target many people
What are the benefits for employers - healthy workforce= happier. - decreased absenteeism, increased productivity, improved social and work culture, higher retention of staff, good rep.
Cost of ill health of businesses cost of absenteeism, cost temporary staff, staff turnover, presenteeism/not productive, early retirement (slide on learn copy details).
What are the benefits for employees• Increased physical activity & fitness
• Improved health & mental well-being
• Enhanced self esteem
• Improved job satisfaction & morale
• Increased communication and colleague support
• Feel valued as an employee
• Cheap or free access to activities
• Convenient
• Improved workplace physical environment & facilities
What are the benefits for employers?• Healthy workforce = happier workforce
• Decreased absenteeism
• Increased productivity
• Improved social & work culture (e.g. communication)
• Higher retention / reduced recruitment costs
• Reputation & recognition as a good employer
- Attract good quality staff

Section 2

Question Answer
Approaches to PA in the workplaceawareness and education, programmes and activities, supportive environments, policy and culture.
Awareness & Education• Health & fitness checks • Educational materials • Maps showing walking/cycling routes around workplace • Web-based advice and support
Programmes & Activities• Stair climbing interventions • Pedometer programmes • Walk & cycle to work initiatives • Lunchtime walks • One-off & taster sessions and activities • Activity clubs/groups • On-site exercise classes • Competitions (inter- / intra- workplace) • Subsidised membership at off-site gyms / facilities
promoting stair use; signage /environmental changesprompting people that they are getting exercise whilst using stairs--> shift to how many calories and being burnt. (CDC study) first used signs --> then used artwork and music- they found that use of stair use increased. from 11.1 to 12.7 for signs (no sig nif). then signs,music and artwork, rose to 15.5 signif increase. declined to 13.8 when intervention removed but still higher than baseline.(boutelle)
promoting walking in the workplacepedometer programs, walking to work and lunch time walking groups- popular methods.
Prince Edward Island “First Step” Programme- describe • Canadian workers with moderately-highly sedentary jobs • 177 enrolled, 106 completed • Pedometer (step counts) Intervention: • 4 week adoption phase – Weekly meetings with facilitator – Goal setting, relapse prevention, self-monitoring • 8 week adherence phase – Self-monitoring and goal setting
finding of the first step programme 49%  in mean steps per day by week 4 . which was then maintained. however, don't know after study.
promoting sport in the workplace Andre brinkley; systematic review. Identified benefits for – Individual health – Group cohesion – Organisational benefits e.g. work performance.
What is workplace challenge?provides a unique mix of technology (online) and on the ground (offline) support through the network of County Sports Partnerships in England. Main features of intervention; -Activity log & smartphone app.- National activity log challenges.- Local activities and challenges .-Close links with National Governing Bodies of sport.-Workplace Challenge Champions.- Expert guidance and advice for the development of workplace physical activity
Key finding of workplace challenge67% female participants. 79% sedentary. 63,653 registered. 14,848 (23%) inactive. of inactive people. walking most popular 44%. then cycling then running, then gym then swimming. 65% taking part in sport. 86% met guidelines. 55% more active, 35% feel fitter, 37% feel healthier. page 12.
Active travel to work for all or part of journey, walk/cycling and even scooting
Walk in to work out study (reading)• RCT to increase active commuting in 3 workplace settings (hospital trust, university, public sector) • Intervention: “Walk in to Work Out pack” - booklet with educational and practical info (routes, cycle storage etc), wall chart, workplace map • Control group: Told they would receive it 6 months later • 25% of the intervention group changed to “action/ maintenance” at 12 months. significant increase in those walking to work. successful intervention roled out to businesses and still used today.

Section 3

Question Answer
supportive environment • Secure bicycle storage • Pool bikes • Changing facilities • On-site gyms • Sports equipment • Decorate stair wells • Lighting in workplace grounds. Do require investments, so organisations need to invest.
policy and culture; Include physical activity in workplace policies:• Travel plans • Bicycle purchase schemes • Flexi-time • Incentives
Policy and culture; Develop an ‘activity’ culture: • Move more during working day • Breaks away from desks • Take a lunch break
Breaking up and reducing sitting timePromote incidental activity • Stand whilst talking on the telephone • Walk to talk to colleagues instead of using e-mail • Standing meetings • Walking meetings
New innovations in workplace PAtreadmill desks, cycle desks, standing desks, active office

Section 4

Question Answer
ecological model of four domains of active living page 19. built environment- perceived environment, enabling activity.
What is the built environment“The built environment is part of our physical surroundings and includes the buildings, parks, schools, road systems, and other infrastructure that we encounter in our daily lives” (Health Canada, 2002)
example of supportive cycle environmentamsterdam - bike parking structures, cycle paths etc
Walkability environments that encourage people to walk or bike for transportation. What is not 'walkable' no street connectivity and no mixed land use.
Attributed of the built environmentpage 22. functional, safety, aesthetic and destination.
How do we measure the built environment• Plotting frequencies of environmental features • Perceptions of the environment • Environmental audits • Geographic information systems (GIS) • Global positioning systems (GPS)
Plotting frequencies of environmental attributes • Plot the prevalence of an environmental attribute relative to a fixed location e.g. residential address, schools, city district • Obtain a count of the environmental attribute e.g. number of leisure centres within a designated zone around the fixed location • Compare the prevalence of the environmental attribute with levels of physical activity
Plotting frequencies of environmental attributes exampleVery small effect of facility availability! Each additional facility per 10,000 capita associated with ~0.20% increase in likelihood of frequent vigorous exercise. just cus they are there doesn't mean they will be used, needs to be encouraged.
Perceptions of the environment • Self-report • Typically ask about the environment with 10-15 minutes walk from where the participant lives • Rate different environmental attributes • Many examples of surveys – Neighbourhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS) – NEWS-A (NEWS abbreviated) – ALPHA (European version-terminology) – PENS • Assess relationship with physical activity
Recap Percaptions of the environment in neighbourhood scale (PENS)in past lecture.

Section 5

Question Answer
Geographic Information Systems (GIS)• GIS are computer packages that store multiple layers of ‘geo-coded’ or ‘geographic’ data – e.g. roads, topography, facilities, land use (e.g. parkland), events (e.g. crime, road accidents) • System can then be used to assess overlap (e.g. do more road accidents occur where road quality is poor? Are more crimes committed in parks or residential areas?) • Used by a range of agencies e.g. police, transport departments, planning departments and increasingly gaining interest from health bodies
GIS- data layersstreet data> buildings data> vegetation data> integrated data. useful to look at if/why/where people will walk or engage in PA.
Global positioning system (GPS) • Network of 24 orbiting satellites and 4 ground stations that transmit low power radio signals • Uses triangulation to calculate exact position on earth • Locked onto 3 satellites a GPS monitor can record 2D position to an accuracy of approximately 12 meters • The monitor records location at a user defined interval • Once locked on the monitor can calculate speed and distance. Check where people go, how far people go, how fast etc.
Using GPS processing in actioncombined with accelerometer data can assess intensity.

Section 6

Question Answer
range of Interventions to change the built environment, including • Provision and maintenance of footpaths, cycle paths • Improving safety of cycle paths • Improving connectivity – new bridges or walkways • Improved signage • New housing, workplaces etc – include walking/cycle routes- needs to be adaptive to local people and local needs.
examples of interventions - londoncycle super highways london - 2 so far and in process of another 2. (segregated cycle lanes).
examples of interventions- cambridge guided busway • Intervention = guided busway with walking/cycling path (opened 2011) • Annual survey between 2009- 2012 • Diverse changes in travel behaviour patterns  No change  Full modal shift  Partial modal shift  Patterned/variable behaviour. despite mixed results, provided valuable insite into these types of interventions.
fitter for walking; AIM “to increase awareness and promote walking as a mode of transport for short journeys by improving the local environment” - places selected due to high obesity and low PA. 150 different communities over 12 authorities.
fitter for walking; infrastructure changesidentifies barriers to walking, identified which interventions to use. removed street furniture/barriers. clean up of graffiti/environment. Maps of walking routes. etc
fitter for walking; results counted number of pedestrians using route. increased at 14-20 months. (once all work completed, less at 12 months). Increase in perceived route use.
NICE guidancehighlights the need for heath professionals to work with local communities