PA and H, lecture 5

winniesmith2's version from 2017-12-11 16:28

Section 1

Question Answer
Intervention goals Change factors influencing physical activity -> Change physical activity behaviour -> Increase PA levels -> Improve health and well-being
Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion 1986: goals/key points• Health promotion is the process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve, their health. • Health promotion strategies and programmes should be adapted to the local needs and possibilities of individual countries and regions to take into account differing social, cultural and economic systems
5 key areas for health promotion action in Ottawa Charter • Develop personal skills • Strengthen community actions • Create supportive environments • Reorient health services • Build healthy public policy
Intervention development considerations: intervention theorybased on theory = more affective • Psychological models • Behaviour change theory and techniques • Intervention frameworks • Logic models. WHY the change occurred.
Intervention development considerations - 3 areas1)Intervention theory, intervention characteristics and implementations and research and evaluation
Intervention characteristics and implementation• Target group • Which strategies? • Which setting? • By whom? • How? (mode) • How often? (frequency) • For how long? (duration)
Research and evaluation • Study design • Measures • Instruments • Type of evaluation
Theory of planned behaviourPsychological model. Attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control all lead to intention and intention leads to behaviour. Perceived behavioural control also links directly to behaviour.
Transtheoretical model (stages of behaviour change)6 stages of change. Pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance, relapse
Processes of change applied to PA -cognitive/thinking process- increase info on oneself and PA. Understand risk of inactivity and sedentary living , effect s on family/co worked. Increase awareness of alternative for PA and benefits of it
Process of change applied to PA- behavioural strategies Ways to get around barriers, support from other people, encourage them to reward themselves for effort. -plans and commitments/prompts.

Section 2

Question Answer
definition of behavioural change techniques (BCTs)“Theory-based method for changing one or several psychological determinants of behaviour e.g. attitude or self efficacy” • ‘Active ingredients’ of an intervention
behavioural change taxonomy(BCTs)- what is itconsensus for reporting behavioural change interventions to allow them to be compared - 93 items .
BCTs for walking and cycling • 26-item taxonomy • 46 interventions • 21 studies significant effect on walking/ cycling . Alot of variation between studies but those which showed effects, alot of “Prompt self-monitoring” “Prompt intention formation” . - 13 studies used these. - include these in future studies for desirable effect.
planning framework- Intervention mapping protocol for planning intervention. Step 1- needs assessment. 2. Behaviour change objectives. 3. theory based methods an practical strategies. 4. programmed plan. 5. Adoption and implementation of programme. 6. evaluation plan.(should be mapped out for entire process).
Intervention mapping: worksite physical activity (pages 8 and 9)(4:49 time) Barriers and levers for physical activity • Identified theoretical constructs predicting PA • Identified potential intervention strategies (posters to use stairs, fit PA into commute) • Theory of planned behaviour + knowledge •  increase moderate intensity physical activity – At work, in leisure time, during commute • Informational, behavioural/motivational, environmental components • Using employees as ‘facilitators’ for delivery .

Section 3

Question Answer
Logic models “A way of describing the changes that the intervention is intended to bring about, defining what will happen during a intervention, in what order and with what anticipated effects”
A logic model can help you to… • Communicate the purpose of a programme • Identify what a programme will involve • Justify why a programme will work • Assess the potential effectiveness of an approach • Identify appropriate outcome indicators • Plan programme development and evaluation
Basic logic model steps1. resources/inputs > 2.Activities.> 3. outputs > 4.Outcomes. > 5. Impacts . (1-2= your planned work) (3-5= Your intended results).
Kids walk to school logic modelpage 11. Example of model.

Section 4

Question Answer
Interventions- who?target group- look at population data. clear rationale and data to back up why. specific age group or could be specific sub group. need to justify it.
interventions- where?setttings- where are you going to contact your target group.
interventions- how?strategies- which ones best to reach target group and what ones don't work. Page 13.
Inteventions- socioeconomic modelanother way to look at model- page 14. individual level - community level and population level.Need to intervene at many levels. Simultaneously and consistently.
Which sectors are involved• Public Health • Healthcare • Fitness, sports and leisure • Education • Transportation • Urban Design, Community Planning • Parks, Recreation • Mass Media • Business and Industry • Volunteer and Non-Profit Organizations
Who will deliver the intervention • Researcher • Public Health Officer • Sports development officer • Nursery nurse • Teacher • Healthcare professional • Travel advisors • Occupational health advisor
GPs issues with them delivering interventions normally best people to implement them as GP is trusted, but they do not actually know guidelines.
Mode of intervention delivery (how?)• Individual face to face (costs alot tho) • Group based (some love it, some are intimidated)• Community-based (might not reach target group)• Telephone • Technology-based • Printed materials • Combination of modes- look at evidence to see what has worked before.
Mode of intervention delivery (how often?)• Individual face to face • Group based • Community-based • Telephone • Technology-based • Printed materials • Combination of modes
Imagine you are designing an interventionwho is your target group and why? what is your target setting and why? What would the characteristics of your intervention be? (which mode of delivery? how often and how long? who would deliver your intervention?) plan your answer/ response in exam preparation.

Section 5

Question Answer
What was the toronto charter for PAGlobal call for action. used a variety of studies to create a tool to help advocate for greater political and social commitment to support health enhancing PA for all. - published the best investments that work for PA..
7 best investments. 1) ‘Whole-of-school’ programs
7 best investments 2) Transport policies and systems that prioritise walking, cycling and public transport
7 best investments 3)Urban design regulations and infrastructure that provides for equitable and safe access for recreational physical activity, and recreational and transport-related walking and cycling across the life course
7 best investments 4)Physical activity and NCD prevention integrated into primary health care systems
7 best investments 5)Public education, including mass media to raise awareness and change social norms on PA.
7 best investments 6)Community-wide programs involving multiple settings and sectors & that mobilize and integrate community engagement and resources
7 best investments 7) Sports systems and programs that promote ‘sport for all’ and encourage participation across the life span