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Oxidation Numbers 3

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Updated 2009-03-26 23:25

Oxidation States

 

The terms "oxidation number" and "oxidation state" are often used interchangeably and often give the same number. The IUPAC convention is that "oxidation state" is what is listed in Oxidation Numbers and Oxidation Numbers 2.

 

Wikipedia says the following:

 

"The terms oxidation state and oxidation number are often used interchangeably. Rigorously, however, oxidation number is used in coordination chemistry with a slightly different meaning. In coordination chemistry, the rules used for counting electrons are different: every electron belongs to the ligand, regardless of electronegativity. Also, oxidation numbers are conventionally represented with Roman numerals while oxidation states use Arabic numerals."

 

Oxidation raises the oxidation state.

 

Reduction reduces the oxidation state.

 

AtomOxidation State
Li in LiH+1
H in LiH-1
O in H2O2-1
H in H2O2+1
S in H2S-2
S in S8 0
S in SO2+4
S in SO3+6
S in H2SO4+6
F in anything-1
H in NaH-1
H in NaBH4-1
H in LiAlH4-1
H in most things+1
Alkali metals in most things+1
Alkaline earth metals in most things+2
Halogens in most things-1
Halogens (but not F) when bonded to O, N, or another halogennot -1
O in Cr(OH)3-2
H in Cr(OH)3+1
Cr in Cr(OH)3+3
memorize

 

AtomOxidation State
C in CH4-4
C in C2H6-3
C in CH3F-2
C in C2H2-1
C in CH2F20
C in C2H2F4+1
C in CHF3+2
C in C2F6+3
C in CF4+4
O in ZnO-2
O in CO2-2
O in H2O-2
O in most things-2
O in peroxides-1
O in superoxides-1/2
O in ozonides-1/3
O in KO2-1/2
O in KO2one is 0, one is -1
O in RbO3-1/3
O in O20
O in O2+[AsF6]-+1/2
O in O2F2+1
O in OF2+2
memorize

References

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxidation_state,
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_oxidation_states_of_the_elements,
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxidation_number.

 

Oxidation Numbers and Oxidation Numbers 2 give more.