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Ovarian Cancer - General

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omarys's version from 2017-05-09 14:18

Section 1

Question Answer
5% of ____ (all or gynecological?) cancers in women are ovarian cancersall
_________% of gynecological cancers are ovarian cancers, and _________% of gynecological cancer mortalities are due to ovarian cancer (x and 2x)23 and 46 (23*2)
Ovarian cancer is the __th deadliest cancer in women (ovar = vour = ?)4
Birth control pills may ________ (increase or decrease?) the risk of ovarian cancer by up to 50%decrease
TRUE OR FALSE- The worldwide incidence of ovarian cancer is decreasing.True. Thanks to screening tests for BRCA mutations and prophylactic surgery, US screening, prevalence of birth control pills
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Section 2

Question Answer
Specialized gonadal tumors are AKA (begins with the same letter- S)Sex cord-gonadal stromal tumors
Sex cord-stromal tumors arise from ___ or ___ cellsgranulosa ; theca
TRUE OR FALSE- In post-menopausal women, ovarian lesions/abnormalities are more likely to be ovarian cancer compared with fertile women (in whom these lesions/cysts/etc. are relatively common and benign).True.
Ovarian cancer is characterized by _____ menarche and ____ menopauseearly ; late
Can any drugs/medication increase the risk of ovarian cancer?yes
Clomifine citrate induces _____ (Clementine from WW is so sexy she makes women _____)Ovulate/ovulation
Clomifene citrate is an anti-____ medication (what hormone?)estrogen
Clomifene citrate stimulate the _____ (what gland?), causing it to secrete ______ (what hormones?)pituitary ; gonadotropins
The risk for a borderline ovarian cancer is increased by _____ ______clomifene citrate
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Section 3

Question Answer
Of all the subtypes of epithelial ovarian cancer, which has hobnail cells and is more aggressive/lethal than the others?Clear cell (ovarian carcinoma)
Of all the subtypes of epithelial ovarian cancer, which is most associated with UTERINE tumors?Endometriod (ovarian carcinoma)
Of all the subtypes of epithelial ovarian cancer, which has many papillary projections, often with psammoma bodies (calcification)?Serous (ovarian carcinoma)
Of all the subtypes of epithelial ovarian cancer, which is multilocular (having several septations), can become very large? (Hint- produces a thick secretion)Mucinous (ovarian carcinoma)
Of all the subtypes of epithelial ovarian cancer, which is RARE, has transitional epithelium-like cells, and forms nests of these cells resembling COFFEE BEANS?Transitional cell (carcinoma of the ovary) or TCC
Tubal carcinoma (=of the fallopian tubes) and primary peritoneal carcinoma are classified as being ______-like malignanciesovarian
Of all the subtypes of epithelial ovarian cancer, which may be explained by cancerous cells originating in the fallopian tubes and MIGRATING to the ovaries to cause cancer in them?Serous / tubal (ovarian carcinoma)
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Section 4

Question Answer
Incessant or excessive _____ may explain the pathological mechanism of ovarian carcinogenesis because it involves repetitive damage to the ovaries' outer layers.ovulation (excessive in e.g. nulliparity)
High levels of _______ (hormone), unopposed by ______ (hormone), may explain the mechanism underlying ovarian carcinogenesis.Estrogen ; progesterone
How do birth control pills decrease the risk of ovarian cancer? They _______ ________.inhibit ovulation
The type I/low grade pathway leads to carcinoma thru which mutations? (what genes are mutated?)K-RAS, B-RAF, PTEN
The type II/high grade pathway leads to carcinoma thru which mutations?P53
Which type of ovarian cancer (I or II) is associated with an "intermediate" stage that is a borderline tumor?Type I / low grade pathway
Which type of ovarian cancer (I or II) originates in the fallopian tubes rather than the ovary itself?Type II / high grade pathway
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Section 5

Question Answer
5-10% of ALL ovarian cancer patients and 50-75% of HEREDITARY ovarian cancer patients have mutations in _____ (gene)BRCA (1 or 2)
Mutations in which gene, BRCA1 or BRCA2, are responsible for the MAJORITY of hereditary ovarian cancers?BRCA1 (50-60% of hereditary ovarian cancer patients have this mutation)
A woman with BRCA1 mutation has a _________% risk of developing ovarian cancer, while a woman with a BRCA2 mutation has a _________% risk. (1 is half of 2, one percentage is half of the other)BRCA1 = 40% ; BRCA2 = 20%
Lynch II (HNPCC) syndrome is a genetic condition in which there is increased familial incidence of _________ of the ovaries, breasts, endometrium and GIT.adenocarcinomas
Mutations in which genes (4) are associated with Lynch II syndrome?PMS1, MLH1, PMS2, MSH2
TRUE OR FALSE- There is no cost-effective screening test for women at risk of ovarian cancer, but a combination of different screening methods is recommended in women with familial syndromes.True
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Section 6

Question Answer
TRUE OR FALSE- In women with familial mutations, a gynecological test is not sensitive for screening for ovarian cancer.True. Only 1 in 10,000 cases will be detected with gynecological examination.
TRUE OR FALSE- In women with familial mutations, transvaginal US is a sensitive (>95%) but not specific screening test for ovarian cancer.True. US is good for ovarian pathology but it detects all kinds of pathologies, not just malignancies.
TRUE OR FALSE- In women with familial mutations, transvaginal US WITH DOPPLER is more effective in screening fertile women than post-menopausal women.False. There is constant blood flow to the ovaries in fertile women, so the doppler won't make a difference. It can help detect pathologies in post-menopausal women because they have less ovarian perfusion normally.
TRUE OR FALSE- In women with familial mutations, high levels of CA-125 are specific to ovarian cancer (i.e. the CA-125 test is specific).False. There are MANY situations (both physiological and pathological) where CA-125 is elevated.
TRUE OR FALSE- In women with familial mutations, screening tests (in general) are more sensitive than they are specific.True.
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Section 7

Question Answer
Estrogen alone increases the risk for which cancers?Ovarian, endometrial (NOT breast)
Progesterone alone increases the risk for which cancers?Breast (UNKNOWN LINK to ovarian cancer)
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