Ortho, ortho, four point Ortho

lunalovegood's version from 2016-03-02 01:37

Section 1

Question Answer
Embryonic period?fertilization to week 8
Fetal period?week 9 to term
Tissues and organs develop?week 4 - 8 (develop from the 3 germ layers)
Dangerous period for teratogens?week 4 - 8 (organs and tissues)
After week ___, only "minor things happen really"9
What happens week 3-9?A LOT OF SHIT GOES DOWN (CNS, heart etc.)
Morula approx day ___4
Blastocyst approx day ___5
Implantation? Bilaminar disc?weeks 1 and 2 of development
Bilaminar disc 2 layers?epiblast, endoderm
Gastrulation?week 3 (endo, meso, ecto)
bilaminar disc -----> trilaminar discweek 3 (gastrulation)
Gastrulation begins with the formation of the ...primitive streak
Development of face?week 4 - 8
Pharyngeal arches begin to develop?week 4
T/F - The pharyngeal apparatus consists of a series of bilaterally paired arches, pouches, grooves and membranes.T
There are ___ pharyngeal arches, but only ___ are active.6, 4 (4 fuses with 6 and 5 disappears)
PharyArch EXTERNAL fissures?grooves / clefts
PharyArch INTERNAL fissurespouches
Tissue interposed between clefts and pouches?pharyngeal membranes
PharyArch - EXT ecto, INT endo, core of ____mesenchyme
T/F - Pharyngeal arches play the major role in formation of the face, oral cavity, teeth, nasal cavities, pharynx, larynx and neck.T
Mandibular division grows into the main portion of arch...1
Arch 4 nerve?superior laryngeal branch of vagus
Arch 6 nerve?recurrent laryngeal branch of vagus
Dorsal end of Meckel'smalleus and incus (middle ear ossicles)
Middle of Meckel'ssphenomandibular ligament
Ventral of Meckel'smandible
Dorsal end of Reichert'sstapes and styloid process
Some of Reichert's perichondriumstylohyoid ligament
T/F - The future face is indicated by the augmented size of the prosencephalon.T (considered the forebrain)
Starts to see prominences that form the entire face!Week 5
Mesenchyme along nasal placodes forms...MNP and LNP
Medial ends of mandibular prominences fuse to form...chin and lower lip
Forms forehead, philtrum, and dorsum and bridge of nose...frontonasal prominence
Forms lateral portion of upper lip and most of the maxillamaxillary prominence
___ + ____ = Upper lipMNP + MP
____ + ____ + ____ = External noseFNP + MNP + LNP
Contact between MNP and MP, separating the nasal pit from stomatodeum occurs during week...Week 6 - 7
Failed fusion of ___ and ___ causes cleft lip (or cheiloquisis)MNP and MP during week 7
Face takes human appearance week _________week 7 - 8
The auricles form (low) week ___week 7 - 8
The nostrils are in definitive position week ___week 7 - 8
Head elevates off the thorax week ___week 8
Mouth opens and mandible moves forward week _________week 8
Palatal shelves elevate and maxillary ossification commences week ___week 8
Development of the palate week _________ - _________weeks 6 - 12
Primary palate week _________week 6
T/F - the primary palate (triangular part ANT to incisive foramen) originates deep to intermaxillary segment, arising from fusion of 2 MNPs.T
Abscence of primary palate, abscence of ____premaxilla (median cleft lip and palate, holoprosencephaly)
Nasal floor + Nasal cavity + Roof of the mouthsecondary palate
Elements of secondary palate?2 lateral palatal processes and the primary palate
Vertical to horizontal palatal shelf transition occurs in week ___week 8 (occurs within hours WHOA COOL!)
T/F - Several mechanisms have been proposed for elevation of palatal shelves including 1) variation in vasculature and blood flow in these structures 2) accumulation and hydration of hyaluronic acid and GAGs within the ECM of the shelves and 3) biomechanical transformation in the physical consistency of the CT matrix of the shelves.T
Fusion goes from ___ to ____ (ant or post)anterior to posterior
Mid-palatal suture evident at ___ weeks10.5 weeks
Growth of the mid-palatal suture ceases between _________ and _________ years1 and 2
Obliteration of the mid-palatal suture may start in ___adolescence
T/F - The skull forms from mesenchymal CT around the developing brainT
2 components of developing skull...neurocranium and viscerocranium
Calvaria and base of the skull - derived mainly from occipital somites and somitomeresneurocranium
Skeleton of face and associated structures - derived from neural crest ectoderm viscerocranium
Fibrous joints comprised of sheets of denseCT that separate bones of the calvaria.sutures
Regions of dense CT where sutures come together.fontanelles


Question Answer
Failure of palatal shelves to fuse with each other with the primary palate causes ...cleft palate
Failure of fusion of max and mand processes causes...lateral cleft
Failure of fusion of max and LNPs causes ...oblique cleft
Cleft palate, horseshoe shape and hypoplastic mandiblePierre Robin Sequence
Lack of fusion of distal tongue bud's - lateral swellingbifid tongue


Question Answer
Petrous and mastoid part of temporalchondrocranium
Interparietal part of occipitalmembranous neurocranium
Parietalmembranous neurocranium
Frontalmembranous neurocranium
Squamous part of temporalmembranous neurocranium


Question Answer
Middle ear ossiclescartilaginous viscerocranium
Styloid process of the temporal bonecartilaginous viscerocranium
Hyoid bonecartilaginous viscerocranium
Laryngeal cartilagescartilaginous viscerocranium
Maxillamembranous viscerocranium
Zygomatic bonesmembranous viscerocranium
Squamous temporal bonesmembranous viscerocranium
Mandiblemembrane viscerocranium (except for the mandibular condyle and the midline of the chin)

Section 2

Question Answer
Epidermis, hair, nailsecto (surface)
Glands of skinecto (surface)
Hair folliclesecto (surface)
Adenohypophysisecto (surface)
Lens of the eyeecto (surface)
Tooth enamelecto (surface)
Mammary glandsecto (surface)
Inner earecto (surface)
Some CT of H&NNeural crest ecto
Pharyngeal arch cartilageNeural crest ecto
Bone and muscleNeural crest ecto
Dentin and cementumNeural crest ecto
Cells of spinal, cranial and autonomic gangliaNeural crest ecto
MeningesNeural crest ecto
Adrenal medullaNeural crest ecto
MelanocytesNeural crest ecto
Schwann cellsNeural crest ecto
CNSNeural tube ecto
RetinaNeural tube ecto
Pineal glandNeural tube ecto
NeurohypophysisNeural tube ecto
Skull and some CT of headmeso
Some muscles of head, trunk and limbs (skeletal, smooth, and cardiac)meso
Kidneys, ovaries, testesmeso
Genital ducts and accessory glandsmeso
CT and muscle of viscerameso
Primitive heartmeso
Blood and lymph cellsmeso
Adrenal cortexmeso
Epithelium of GI, respiratory tract, reproductive ducts and glands, urethra and bladderendo
Glandular derivatives of GI (liver, pancreas)endo
Epithelium of auditory tube and tonsilsendo
Thyroid, parathyroid and thymus glandsendo
Epithelium of oral and anal cavitiesecto

Section 3

Question Answer
Major contributor to development of the face?1
Meckel's cartilage1
Mandibular arch1
Reichert's cartilage2
Hyoid bone2
Greater horn of hyoid bone3
Inferior part of body of hyoid bone3
Laryngeal cartilages4 and 6
Thyroid4 and 6
Cricoid4 and 6
Arytenoid4 and 6
Muscles of mastication1 (masseter, temporalis, med & lat ptery)
Anterior belly digastric1
Tensor veli palatini1
Tensor tympani1
Muscles of facial expression2
Frontalis, orbicularis oris, orbicularis oculi, zygomaticus, playsma2
Stylodhyoid muscle2
Posterior belly digastric2
Pharynx4 and 6
Larynx 4 and 6
Cricothyroid muscle4
Intrinsic muscles of larynx 6
Maxillary artery1
Hyoid artery2
Stapedial artery2
Carotid system3
Arch of aortaLeft side of 4
Right subclavian arteryRight side of 4
Pulmonary arteries6
Tympanic cavityPouch 1
Pharyngotympanic tubePouch 1 (aka eustachian tube)
Mastoid antrumPouch 1
Crypt lining of palatine tonsilsPouch 2
Inferior parathyroid glandsdorsal part of Pouch 3
Thymusventral part of Pouch 3
Superior parathyroid glandsdorsal part of Pouch 4
Ultimobranchial body - parafollicular cellsventral part of Pouch 4
Pouch 5 ___ ___ typically regresses
EAMGroove 1
Proliferates and covers the remaining grooves, forming a temporary fluid-filled cavity called the cervical sinusmesenchymal tissue of arches 2 and 3
Tympanic membrane 1st pharyngeal membrane
Lesser horn of hyoid bone2
Superior body of hyoid bone2
Cervical sinusGrooves 2 and 4
Anterior 2/3 of tongue1 (lateral lingual swellings)
Posterior 1/3 of tongue2 elevations - copula from 2 and hypobranchial eminence from 3