Ortho and Rheum

bethdrysdale's version from 2017-11-10 21:48

Section 1

Question Answer
Pseudogout key featureschondrocalcinosis - weakly-positively birefringent rhomboid shaped crystals
Ankylosing Spondylitis key featuresbamboo spine
Definition of osteomalacia, and common featuressoftening of the bones, through deficiency of vitamin D or calcium. Bone pain, muscle weakness, Asian female. low calcium, low phosphate, high ALP, high PTH
Paget's disease key featuresbone pain, bone thickening, raised ALP, normal calcium, normal phosphate, normal PTH
Osteoarthritis vs rheumatoid symptomssystemic upset, bilateral inflamed 2nd&3rd MCPs. xray showa periarticular erosions and subluxation and subchondral cysts, pain improves with use = RA. CMC, DIP&PIP joints affected. xray shows subchondral sclerosis. pain improves with rest = OA
Reactive arthritis exampleSTI followed by arthritis, urethritis and conjuctivitis
Gout featuressignificant pain, swelling, erythema. Ankle, wrist, knee. needle shaped crystals
Osgood-Schlatter historysporty teenage boy presents with pain, tenderness and swelling over tibial tubercle
Osteochondritis dissecans historysporty teenage boy presents with knee pain after exercise, associated with INTERMITTENT swelling and locking
SLE featuresfatigue, fever, mouth ulcers, lymphadenopathy. malar (butterfly) rash, raynauds. arthralgia, pleurisy, proteinuria, neuropsychiatric symptoms.

Section 2

Question Answer
musculocutaneous nerveC5-7. Elbow flexion and supination. Lateral part of forearm sensation. Isolated injury rare.
axillary nervec5-6. shoulder abduction. inferior region of deltoid sensation. humeral neck fracture/dislocation
radial nervec5-8. extension forearm, wrist, fingers, thumb. Dorsal aspect of MCs 1&2 sensation. humeral midshaft fracture (wrist drop)
median nerveC6, C8, T1. Thenar muscles, opponens pollicis, pronation of forearm and some wrist flexion. Palm of lateral 3.5fingers sensation. wrist lesion >> carpal tunnel syndrome.
ulnar nerveC8, T1. intrinsic hand muscles, some wrist flexion. medial 1.5fingers sensation. medial apicondyle fracture (claw hand)
Long thoracic nerveC5-7. serratus anterior. rib fracture or mastectomy (winged scapula)

Section 3