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Oroesophageal Dz - 2

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sihirlifil's version from 2018-02-07 01:51

Vesicular Dz w/ NO DIARRHEA

Question Answer
Which vesicular diseases are characterized by erosions of the oral cavity, teats, interdigital spaces, and coronary bands, but NO diarrhea?Foot & Mouth Disease (FMD)
Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV)
Contagions Ecthyma (Orf)
Bluetongue
(Swine Vesicular Disease (SVD)
(Vesicular Exanthema of Swine (VES)
Where is FMD found? in who?Foreign animal dz! Not reported in US since 1929
Affects cloven-hooved animals (ruminants, swine, NOT HORSES)
FMD agentGenus Aphthovirus, family Picornaviridae
How is FMD spread?Viremic animals (for 2-3 YEARS!)
Aerosol, fomites (people esp vets, shoes/clothing, equipment, tires)
FMD: _________ morbidity & _________ mortalityHIGH MORBIDITY but low mortality (most exposed animals get dz, we're the ones who kill the animals to cull the oubreak)
FMD: clinical signsVesicular lesions (bilsters, bulla) rupture within 48 hours, mucosal sloughing
Fever
Dullness
Decr appetite
Hypersalivation
Lameness
Production losses
Abortion
You see these lesions: what do you suspect, and WHAT MUST YOU DO
FMD. NOTIFY the state veterinarian!
Quarantine & isolate animals until instructed otherwise
How do you test for FMD(let the state vet do it lol but) ELISA > CF, VN, FAT
What must happen to FMD positive animals? why?Euthanasia of all exposed animals must occur. causes economic & emotional devastation
Is there a vax for FMD?Yes, for endemic regions
Clinically, how can you ddx Vesicular stomatitis from FMD?you cant!!! Fever, painful oral lesion, coronary band, teats. Only thing is that VSV can affect horses too
Also VSV less likely to affect animals <1 year old
You see this lesion: top ddx?
Vesicular stomatitis (horse!)
Where is VSV found?Endemic in Mexico, Central & South America
Outbreaks occur in the US every 10-15 years (summer, fall, end with frost) (AZ, NM, UT, CO, WY)
What do you do if you suspect VSV?CALL STATE VET
How is VSV spread?Cow to cow, fomites, vectors. Low mortality, recover in 2-21 days
How do you tx VSV?Supportive care as indicated. keep hydrated, feed
Vax for VSV?Not warranted. interferes with serologic testing
*Main dz of small ruminantsContagious ecthyma (Orf/soremouth)
Agent of OrfParapox virus
CS of OrfCrusting lesions on mucocutaneous junctions (mouth, nose, feet, genitalia, udders)
You see this guy on a farm call, top ddx?
Orf
Whats super wrong with this pic? why?
Not wearing gloves! ORF IS ZOONOTIC
Transmission of OrfDirect contact, environmental, gains entry through abrasions
Incubation 4 days-2 weeks, self-limiting. See esp if new animal introduced to farm
Dx of OrfHistopath, electron microscopy, fluorescent Ab, PCR
Tx of OrfSupportive, +/- antibx fo 2ry bact
Biosecurity measures for OrfPrevent entry into herd
Is there a vax for orf?Live virulent. (but not recommended, virus remains viable in enviro & complicates testing)
Applied to scarified epithelium (nonhaired area back of upper thigh)
Bluetongue agentGenus Orbivirus, family Reoviridae. Athropod-borne viral dz of rumis (vetor: Culicoides)
Bluetongue: clinical dz occurs in?SHEEP! Cattle are reservoir hosts (no CS, just in the sheep coinhabiting with cattle)
What does bluetongue cause?Vasculitis
What caused this?
Bluetongue
CS of bluetongueFever
Edema of muzzle, face
Cyanosis
Hyperemic coronary bands
Profuse nasal discharge
Oral erosions
Abortions
(D+ rare)
Dx of bluetongueSerology (ELISA), VI
Tx of bluetongueSupportive care (eating & drinking), prophylactic antibx (aspiration pneumonia!), NSAIDs
Prognosis of bluetongueAnimals should recover... sloughing of hooves may occur
Prevention of bluetongeVector control (good luck with that)
Vax: MLV used in some parts of the world
memorize

Cause oral ulceration WITH DIARRHEA!

Question Answer
Which diseases cause oral ulceration with d+?Malignant Catarrhal Fever (MCF)
Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD)
Rinderpest (eradicated 2010)
MCF: who gets it? causative agents?Highly fatal viral dz or RUMIS and PIGS
Caues by Ovine herpesvirus-2 & Alcephaline herpesvirus-1 (wildebeast)
Where is MCF found?Worldwide including USA
CS of MCFHigh fever (up to 108*F!!!)
Corneal edema & epiphora (blue haze)
Lymphadenopathy
Vasculitis of viscera (diarrhea, encephalitis, hematuria, oral erosions, erythematous skin)
HIGH MORTALITY
Special about transmission of MCFExposure to sheep is a major risk factor! can harbor but rarely get sick, just shed the virus affecting cattle, and infection is lifelong
**3 ways to ddx MCF from FMD/VSVDiarrhea
Ocular lesions
HIGH mortality (spontaneous death)
(no MCF in horses)
What's this guy probably got?
MCF (corneal edema!)
Dx of MCFPCR to ID virus, ELISA to ID antibodies
Is there a tx for MCF?Usually unsuccessful, may lead to carrier state
Control of MCFKeep sheep >1 mile away
Can test cattle if carriers are suspected in herd (ELISA)
What do these guys have to do with MCF?
Bison (e.g. near Yellowstone) can make contact with free-ranging cattle in the area, can get infected that way
What does BVD cause?GI, resp, repro dz; congenital abnormalities
What are the consequences of BVD?Decrease performance/weight gain
Decreased milk production
Repro losses
Tx of sick animals
These problems result in SUBSTANTIAL COSTS!!! Massive economic importance: $10-40/calving
BVD taxonomyRNA virus, Flaviviridae, genus Pestivirus (same as Border dz, Hog cholera)
Has biotypes & genotypes
BVD: Biotype refers toBehavior of the virus in cell culture
BVD: Genotype refers toAntigenic similarity of the virus
What are the 2 biotypes of BVD?Noncytopathic (NCP): PREDOMINATES in general population, associated with persistant infection
Cytopathic: Uncommon, mutates from NCP "parent" strain (causes mucosal dz in PI)
Of the 2 BVD genotypes, which is more significant?Disease with type 2 is usually worse
Where is BVD found?Worldwide
BVD: who is affected?Cattle are natural hosts. Camelids & other ruminants can be infected, no difference btw beef or dairy
Whats the seroprevalence of BVD?Varies widely among populations (20-90%) depending on area, management schemes
Risk factors for BVDStocking density (more animals crammed into small area)
Management quality (biosecurity)
Vax use (incr seroprevalence, but not clinical dz)
Major source of BVD transmission =Persistencly infected animals
BVD: How do you get a PI?Pregnant dam acutely infected with NCP. If fetus is <125 days of gestation, the immune system is still developing, so will recognize the virus as self. Once born these calves are viremic for life, and shed a LOT of virus!
What's BVD shedding like for acutely infected?Only shed for a defined period of time, and dont have as much viral load (only a minor source of transmission)
How is BVD transmitted?Direct contact (nose-nose)
Body fluids (blood, saliva, semen)
Blood-sucking insect vectors
(Fomites)
Vertical transmission (after 125d gest, can sill be born infected but not PI)
BVD dz state depens on?VIRUS & HOST factors
CS of subclinical BVD?NONE!
The vast majority of BVD infections are what type?Subclinical!
Subclinical BVD: causes what?Immunosuppression --> infection with other pathogens
Serum antibody response occurs
Acute BVD: affects who?Unexposed and immunocompetent cattle
Usually 6-24 months old (<6m still have some maternal antibodies from colostrum & vax, >24m have been vax or recovered from subclin infxn)
CS of Acute BVDOral erosions
Oculonasal d/c (NOT marked corneal opacity like MCF)
D+
Fever
Inappetence
Signs last 2-5 days, LOW MORTALITY
What do PI calves look like?(were infected in utero <125d gestation, immunotolerant to BVD) Clinically normal, but often unthrifty & small
Predisposed to infections, ~50% die within the first year of life
How does mucosal dz compare with acute BVD?Worse diarrhea
Mucosal dz = ?PI animal infected with CP BVD: new infection or mutation of NCP
What happens with mucosal disease?(after incubates 1-2 weeks) Erosions basically mouth to anus, sloughing
2ry bact infxn can occur, but ~100% die in 3-10 days due to debilitation (cant keep up with fluid & nutritional needs)
What are the 2 atypical forms of BVDSevere acute
Hemorrhagic syndrome
What is Severe Acute BVD? CS?Atypical form of BVD (ID'd 1993)
Viral isolates are Type 2
HIGH MORBIDITY but 10-20% mortality, CS resemble mucosal dz but not universally fatal
What is Hemorrhagic Syndrome?Atypical form of BVD
Caused by Type 2
Mortality can be high
Hemorrhagic Syndrome results in?Thrombocytopenia
Bloody diarrhea, epistaxis, bleeding from injection sites
Which erosive & D+ disease is this?
Hemorrhagic syndrome (atypical BVD)
2 ways to dx BVDAntibody: Check for serum neutralizing ABs
Antigen: IHC on skin, Ag-capture ELISA on skin, VI
BVD: positive titer indicates1) Exposure 2) Vax 3) Current active infxn
**BVD: ONLY WAY TO DX A PIANTIGEN (they dont make antibodeis). Ear notch!
Tx for BVDIts a virus sooo... supportive care, broad-spec antibx could be considered for 2ry bact dz (esp respiratory)
Control of BVDCONTROL not prevent (unless dealing with closed herd, which is rare)
Vax when maternal ABs have waned,and all breeding stock before breeding (good colostral ABs)
Screen herd members for PI cattle
memorize

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