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Origins, Insertions, Innervation, Action of Lower Limb Muscles

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buhebuko's version from 2015-12-03 01:58

Gluteal Group Origin

Question Answer
Gluteus maximusposterior iliac crest, dorsal sacrum, coccyx
Gluteus mediusiliac blade
Gluteus minimusiliac blade
Tensor fasciae lataeanterior iliac crest
memorize

Lateral Rotators of Hip Origin

Question Answer
Piriformisventral sacrum
Obturator internusdeep surface of obturator membrane
Obturator externussuperficial obturator membrane
Superior gemellusIschial spine
Inferior gemellusIschial tuberosity
Quadratus femorisIschial tuberosity
memorize

Hamstrings Origin

Question Answer
SemitendinosusIschial tuberosity
SemimembranosusIschial tuberosity
Biceps femorisLong head from ischial tuberosity, short head from linea aspera and lateral intermuscular septum
SartoriusAnterior-superior iliac spine
memorize

Iliopsoas Group Origin

Question Answer
IliacusIliac fossa, T12-L5 bodies & transverse processes
Psoas MajorIliac fossa, T12-L5 bodies & transverse processes
Psoas MinorT12 & L1 bodies
memorize

Quadriceps Origin

Question Answer
Rectus femorisAnterior-inferior iliac spine
Vastus medialisfemoral shaft
Vastus lateralisfemoral shaft
Vastus intermediusanterior femoral shaft
memorize

Adductor Group Origin

Question Answer
Adductor longuspubis
Adductor brevispubis, adjacent obturator foramen
Adductor magnusinferior edge of obturator foramen, ischial tuberosity
Pectineuspubis
Gracilisinferior pubis, ischium
memorize

Anterior Tibial Group Origin

Question Answer
Tibialis Anteriorproximal tibia
Extensor hallucis longusMiddle fibular shaft, interosseous membrane
Extensor digitorum longusproximal fibula, interosseus membrane
Peroneus (Fibularis) tertiusdistal fibula
memorize

Peroneal Group Origin

Question Answer
Peroneus Longusproximal lateral fibula
Peroneus Brevisdistal fibula
memorize

Triceps surae origin

Question Answer
Gastrocnemiusproximal to femoral condyles
Soleusproximal tibia and fibula
Plantarisproximal to lateral femoral condyle
memorize

Depp "flexor" compartment origin

Question Answer
Popliteuslateral femoral condyle
Flexor hallucis longusdistal 2/3 of fibula, interosseous membrane
Flexor digitorum longusMiddle 1/3 posterior tibia
Tibialis posteriorInterosseous membrane, tibia
memorize

Dorsum of foot Origin

Question Answer
Extensor digitorum breviscalcaneus
Extensor hallucis breviscalcaneus
memorize

1st layer origin

Question Answer
Abductor halluciscalcaneus
Flexor digitorum breviscalcaneus
Abductor digiti minmiicalcaneus
memorize

2nd layer origin

Question Answer
Quadratus plantaecalcaneus
LumbricalsTendons of flexor digitorum longus
memorize

3rd layer origin

Question Answer
Flexor hallucis brevisCuboid, tibialis posterior tendon
Adductor hallucisBases of metatarsals 2-4
Flexor digit minimi brevisBase of metatarsal 5
memorize

4th layer origin

Question Answer
Plantar interosseiMedial sides of metatarsals 3-5
Dorsal interosseiAdjacent shafts of metatarsals
memorize

Gluteal Group Insertion

Question Answer
Gluteus maximusGluteal tuberosity, iliotibial tract
Gluteus mediusGreater trochanter
Gluteus minimusGreater trochanter
Tensor fasciae lataeIliotibial tract
memorize

Lateral Rotators of Hip Insertion

Question Answer
Piriformisgreater trochanter
Obturator internusGreater trochanter via lesser sciatic notch
Obturator externustrochanteric fossa
Superior gemellusObturator internus tendon
Inferior gemellusObturator internus tendon
Quadratus femorisinferior greater trochanter
memorize

Hamstrings Insertion

Question Answer
Semitendinosusproximal tibia
Semimembranosusproximal tibia, capsule of knee joint
Biceps femorisHead of fibula
SartoriusUpper medial side of tibia
memorize

Iliopsoas Insertion

Question Answer
IliacusLesser trochanter
Psoas MajorLesser trochanter
Psoas MinorSuperior Pubis
memorize

Quadriceps Insertion

Question Answer
Rectus femorispatellar ligament (to tibial tuberosity)
Vastus medialispatellar ligament (to tibial tuberosity)
Vastus lateralispatellar ligament (to tibial tuberosity)
Vastus intermediuspatellar ligament (to tibial tuberosity)
memorize

Adductor Group Insertion

Question Answer
Adductor longuslinea aspera
Adductor brevisposterior proximal femur
Adductor magnusLinea aspera, medial epicondyle of femur
Pectineusposterior femur
GracilisMedial proximal tibia
memorize

Anterior Tibial Group Insertion

Question Answer
Tibialis Anteriormedial cuneiform, base of first metatarsal
Extensor hallucis longusdistal hallucial phalanx
Extensor digitorum longusdistal phalanges of lateral digits
Peroneus (Fibularis) tertiusdorsum of base of fifth metatarsal
memorize

Peroneal Group Insertion

Question Answer
Peroneus (Fibularis) longusBase of first metatarsal, medial cuneiform
Peroneus (Fibularis) brevisBase of fifth metatarsal
memorize

Triceps Surae Insertion

Question Answer
Gastrocnemiuscalcaneus
Soleuscalcaneus
Plantariscalcaneus
memorize

Deep "flexor" compartment Insertion

Question Answer
Popliteusposterior proximal tibia
Flexor hallucis longusdistal hallucial phalanx
Flexor digitorum longusDistal phalanges of lateral four toes
Tibialis posteriornavicular, three cuneiforms, calcaneus, bases of metatarsals 2-4
memorize

Dorsum of foot Insertion

Question Answer
Extensor digitorum brevisfirst proximal phalanx, middle 3 long extensor tendons
Extensor hallucis brevisfirst proximal phalanx, middle 3 long extensor tendons
memorize

1st layer insertion

Question Answer
Abductor hallucisproximal phalanx
Flexor digitorum brevisMiddle phalanges
Abductor digiti minimiProximal phalanx
memorize

2nd layer insertion

Question Answer
Quadratus plantaeTendons of flexor digitorum longus
LumbricalsProximal phalanges
memorize

3rd layer insertion

Question Answer
Flexor hallucis brevisProximal phalanx
Adductor hallucislateral sesamoid
Flexor digit minimi brevisProximal phalanx
memorize

4th layer insertion

Question Answer
Plantar interosseiMedial sides of base of proximal phalanges 3-5
Dorsal interosseiPRoximal phalanges of second toe (medial and lateral sides) and third and fourth toes (lateral side)
memorize

Gluteal Group Innervation

Question Answer
Gluteus maximusInferior gluteal
Gluteus mediusSuperior gluteal
Gluteus minimusSuperior gluteal
Tensor fasciae lataeSuperior gluteal
memorize

Lateral Rotators of Hip Innervation

Question Answer
PiriformisNerve to piriformis
Obturator internusNerve to obturator internus
Obturator externusObturator
Superior gemellusNerve to obturator internus
Inferior gemellusNerve to quadratus femoris
Quadratus femorisNerve to quadratus femoris
memorize

Hamstrings Innervation

Question Answer
SemitendinosusTibial nerve
SemimembranosusTibial nerve
Biceps femorisTibial nerve
SartoriusFemoral
memorize

Iliopsoas Innervation

Question Answer
IliacusL2-L4 ventral rami
memorize

Quadriceps Innervation

Question Answer
Rectus femorisFemoral
Vastus medialisFemoral
Vastus lateralisFemoral
Vastus intermediusFemoral
memorize

Adductor Group Innervation

Question Answer
Adductor longusObturator
Adductor brevisObturator
Adductor magnusObturator and tibial
PectineusObturator and femoral
GracilisObturator
memorize

Anterior Tibial Group Innervation

Question Answer
Tibialis AnteriorDeep peroneal (fibular)
Extensor hallucis longusDeep peroneal (fibular)
Extensor digitorum longusDeep peroneal (fibular)
Peroneus (Fibularis) tertiusDeep peroneal (fibular)
memorize

Peroneal Group Innervation

Question Answer
Peroneus (Fibularis) longusSuperficial peroneal (fibular)
Peroneus (Fibularis) brevisSuperficial peroneal (fibular)
memorize

Triceps Surae Innervation

Question Answer
GastrocnemiusTibial
SoleusTibial
PlantarisTibial
memorize

Deep "flexor" compartment Innervation

Question Answer
PopliteusTibial
Flexor hallucis longusTibial
Flexor digitorum longusTibial
Tibialis posteriorTibial
memorize

Dorsum of foot innervation

Question Answer
Extensor digitorum brevisDeep peroneal
Extensor hallucis brevisDeep peroneal
memorize

1st layer innervation

Question Answer
Abductor hallucisTibial
Flexor digitorum brevisTibial
Abductor digiti miniTibial
memorize

2nd layer innervation

Question Answer
Quadratus plantaeTibial
LumbricalsTibial
memorize

3rd layer innervation

Question Answer
Flexor hallucis brevisTibial
Adductor hallucisTibial
Flexor digit minimi brevisTibial
memorize

4th layer inervation

Question Answer
Plantar interosseiTibial
Dorsal interosseiTibial
memorize

Gluteal Group Actions (abductors)

Question Answer
Gluteus maximusExtends and rotates hip laterally
Gluteus mediusAbducts and rotates thigh medially
Gluteus minimusAbducts and rotates thigh medially
Tensor fasciae lataemedially rotates thigh
memorize

Lateral Rotators of Hip Action

Question Answer
PiriformisAbducts and rotates thigh laterally
Obturator internusRotates thigh laterally
Obturator externusRotates thigh laterally
Superior gemellusRotates thigh laterally
Inferior gemellusRotates thigh laterally
Quadratus femorisAdducts and rotates thigh laterally
memorize

Hamstrings Action

Question Answer
SemitendinosusExtends thigh, flexes leg
SemimembranosusExtends thigh, flexes leg
Biceps femorisExtends thigh, flexes leg
SartoriusFlexes and rotates thigh laterally, flexes and rotates leg medially
memorize

Iliopsoas Group Action

Question Answer
IliacusFlexes hip (with psoas major)
memorize

Quadriceps Action

Question Answer
Rectus femorisFlexes thigh, extends leg
Vastus medialisExtends leg
Vastus lateralisExtends leg
Vastus intermediusExtends leg
memorize

Adductor Group Actions

Question Answer
Adductor longusAdducts and medially rotates thigh
Adductor brevisAdducts and medially rotates thigh
Adductor magnusAdducts and medially rotates thigh
PectineusAdducts and flexes thigh
GracilisFlexes knee, rotates leg medially
memorize

Anterior Tibial Group Action

Question Answer
Tibialis AnteriorDorsiflexes and inverts foot
Extensor hallucis longusExtends big toe, dorsiflexes foot
Extensor digitorum longusExtends toes, dorsiflexes foot
Peroneus (Fibularis) tertiusDorsiflexes and everts foot
memorize

Peroneal Group Action

Question Answer
Peroneus (Fibularis) longusEverts and plantar flexes foot
Peroneus (Fibularis) brevisEverts and plantar flexes foot
memorize

Triceps Surae Action

Question Answer
Gastrocnemiusplantarflexes foot
SoleusPlantarflexes foot
Plantarisinsignificant plantarflexion
memorize

Deep "flexor" compartment Action

Question Answer
Popliteusrotates leg medially
Flexor hallucis longusPlantarflexes foot, flexes hallux, inverts ankle
Flexor digitorum longusPlantarflexes foot, flexes hallux, inverts ankle
Tibialis posteriorPlantarflexes foot, inverts ankle
memorize

Intrinsic muscles of the dorsum of the foot action

Question Answer
Extensor digitorum brevisExtends toes
Extensor hallucis brevisExtends big toe
memorize

1st layer action

Question Answer
Abductor hallucisAbducts big toe
Flexor digitorum brevisFlexes middle phalanges of lateral four toes
Abductor digiti minimiAbducts little toe
memorize

2nd layer action

Question Answer
Quadratus plantaeAids in flexing toes
LumbricalsFlex metatarsophalangeal joints and extend interphalangeal joints
memorize

3rd layer action

Question Answer
Flexor hallucis brevisFlexes big toe
Adductor hallucisAdducts big toe
Flexor digit minimi brevisFlexes little toe
memorize

4th layer action

Question Answer
Plantar interosseiAdduct toes, flex proximal and extend distal phalanges
Dorsal interosseiAbduct toes, flex proximal and extend distal phalanges
memorize