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Origins Insertions And Actions Of Muscles

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janfdot's version from 2017-11-18 00:55

Muscles Acting on Scapula and Shoulder

 

MuscleOriginInsertionAction
Pectoralis MinorRibs 3-5Coracoid of scapuladepress and abduct scapula
Serratus AnteriorRibs 1-8 or 9Vertebral Border of Scapulaabducts scapula
TrapeziusOccipital bone; ligamentum nuchae & C7-T12Acromion, spine of scapula, clavicleAdducts & elevates scapula, extends head
Levator ScapulaeC1-C4Vertebral border of ScapulaElevate scapula
Spinous processes of C7-T1Medial border of scapulaRetract scapula; stabilize shoulder
Spinous processes of T2-T5Medial border of scapulaRetract scapula; stabilize shoulder
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Muscles Acting on the Humerus and Shoulder

 

MuscleOriginInsertionAction
Pectoralis majorSternumIntertubercular groove of humerusFlex, adduct, medially rotate humerus
Latissimus dorsiCrest , last 4 rib pairsIntertubercular groove of humerusAdducts arm, depress scapula
DeltoidAcromion, spine of scapula; clavicleDeltoid tuberosityAbduct arm
Inferior angle of scapulaIntertubercular sulcus of humerusExtend, medially rotate shoulder
Coracoid process of scapulaMedial shaft of humerusFlex, medially rotate shoulder
SupraspinatusSupraspinous fossaGreater tubercle of humerusAbduct humerus
InfraspinatusInfraspinous fossaGreater tubercle of humerusLaterally rotate humerus
Lateral border and posterior surface of scapulaGreater tubercle of humerusLaterally rotate shoulder
SubscapularisSubscapular fossaLesser tubercleMedially rotate humerus
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Muscles Acting on the Elbow

 

MuscleOriginInsertionAction
BrachialisAnterior distal shaft of humerusUlnar tuberosity and coronoid process of ulnaFlex elbow
Biceps brachii (long head)Glenoid cavity of scapulaRadial tuberosity of radiusFlex, supinate elbow; flex shoulder
Biceps brachii (short head)Coracoid process of scapulaRadial tuberosity of radiusFlex, supinate elbow; flex shoulder
Triceps brachii (long head)Glenoid cavity of scapulaOlecranon process of ulnaExtend elbow; extend, adduct shoulder
Triceps brachii (lateral head)Posterior proximal shaft of humerusOlecranon process of ulnaExtend elbow
Triceps brachii (medial head)Posterior shaft of humerusOlecranon process of ulnaExtend elbow
BrachioradialisLateral supracondylar ridge of humerusLateral radius near styloid processFlex elbow
AnconeusLateral epicondyle of humerusOlecranon process and posterior shaft of ulnaExtend elbow
Pronator quadratusAnterior distal shaft of ulnaAnterior distal shaft of radiusPronate elbow
Pronator teresShaft of humerus near medial epicondyle; coronoid process of ulnaLateral shaft of radiusPronate elbow
SupinatorLateral epicondyle of humerus; proximal ulna near radial notchProximal shaft of radiusSupinate elbow
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Muscles Acting on the Wrist and Hand

 

MuscleOriginInsertionAction
Flexor carpi radialisMedial epicondyle of humerusBases of metacarpals II-IIIFlex wrist
Flexor carpi ulnarisMedial epicondyle of humerus; olecranon process and posterior shaft of ulnaCarpals and metacarpal VFlex wrist
Flexor digitorum superficialisMedial epicondyle of humerus; coronoid process of ulna; superior shaft of radiusMiddle phalanges II-VFlex wrist, hand and fingers
Palmaris longusMedial epicondyle of humerusFlexor retinaculum; palmar aponeurosisAnchor skin and fascia of palmar region
Flexor digitorum profundusProximal shaft and coronoid process of ulna; interosseous membraneDistal phalanges II-VFlex wrist, hand and fingers
Extensor carpi radialis longusLateral supracondylar ridge of humerusBase of metacarpal IIExtend wrist
Extensor carpi radialis brevisLateral epicondyle of humerusBase of metacarpal IIIExtend wrist
Extensor digitorumLateral epicondyle of humerusDorsal phalanges II-VExtend wrist, hand and fingers
Extensor carpi ulnarisLateral epicondyle of humerusBase of metacarpal VExtend wrist
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Muscles of Respiration

 

MuscleOriginInsertionAction
DiaphragmXiphoid process of sternum, ribs and costal cartilages 7-12, lumbar vertebraeCentral tendon of diaphragmInhalation
External intercostalsInferior margins of R1-R11Superior margin of next lower ribElevate, protract R2-R12
Internal intercostalsSuperior margins and costal cartilages of R2-R12; margin of sternumInferior margin of next higher ribDepress, retract R1-R11
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Muscles of the Anterior Abdominal Wall

 

MuscleOriginInsertionAction
External obliqueAnterior surface of lower eight ribsLinea alba, pubic crest and tubercles, and iliac crestFlexes and rotates vertebral column; compress abdominal wall; rotation of waist
Internal obliqueLumbar fascia, iliac crest, and inguinal ligamentLinea alba, pubic crest and and costal cartilages of last 3 ribsFlexes and rotates vertebral column, compresses abdominal wall; rotation of waist
Transversus abdominisInguinal ligament; iliac crest, cartilages of last 5-6 ribs, and lumbar fasciaLinea alba; pubic crestCompress abdomen
Rectus abdominispubic crest, symphysisXiphoid process; costal cartilages of R5-R7Flex and rotates vertebral column
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Muscles of the Back

MuscleOriginInsertionAction
Erector spinaeNuchal ligament; R3-R12, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae; sacral crest; thoracolumbar fasciaMastoid process of temporal; cervical and thoracic vertebrae; all ribsExtend, laterally flex thoracic vertebral column
Semispinalis thoracisT6-T10C6-T4Extend, rotate thoracic vertebral column
Quadratus lumborumIliac crest of ilium; iliolumbar ligamentR12; L1-L4Extend, laterally flex lumbar vertebral column
MultifidusC4-L5; posterior superior iliac spine of ilium; sacrumLaminae, spinous processes of superior vertebraeStabilize adjacent vertebrae
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Muscles Acting on the Hip and Femur

MuscleOriginInsertionAction
IliacusIliac crest and fossa of iliumLesser trochanter and nearby shaft of femurFlex hip
Psoas majorBodies, intervertebral discs of T12 – L5; transverse processes of lumbar vertebraeLesser trochanter and nearby shaft of femurFlex hip
Tensor fasciae lataeIliac crest, anterior superior iliac spine of iliumLateral condyle of tibia via iliotibial bandExtend, laterally rotate knee; abduction, medial rotation of hip
Gluteus maximusIliac crest to posterior superior spine of ilium; coccyx; posterior lower sacrum; aponeurosis of erector spinaeGluteal tuberosity of femur; lateral condyle of tibia via iliotibial bandExtend
Gluteus mediusLateral ilium between crest and acetabulumGreater trochanter of femurAbduct, medially rotate hip
Gluteus minimusLateral ilium between crest and acetabulumGreater trochanter of femurAbduct, medially rotate hip
PiriformisAnterior surface of sacrum; gluteal surface of iliumGreater trochanter of femurLaterally rotate, flex hip
Quadratus femorisIschial tuberosity of ischiumIntertrochanteric crest of femurLaterally rotate hip
Adductor brevisBody, inferior ramus of pubisLinea aspera, pectineal line of femurAdduct hip
Adductor longusBody, inferior ramus of pubisLinea aspera of femurAdduct, medially rotate, flex hip
Adductor magnusInferior ramus of pubis; ramus, ischial tuberosity of ischiumLinea aspera, gluteal tuberosity, medial supracondylar line of femurAdduct, medially rotate, extend hip
GracilisBody, inferior ramus of pubis; ramus of ischiumMedial tibia below condyleFlex, medially rotate knee
PectineusSuperior ramus of pubisPectineal line of femurFlex, adduct hip
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Muscles Acting on the Knee and Leg

MuscleOriginInsertionAction
Rectus femorisAnterior inferior iliac spine of ilium; superior margin of acetabulumTibial tuberosity of tibia, via patellar tendonExtend knee; flex hip
Vastus lateralisGreater trochanter, intertrochanteric line, gluteal tuberosity, linea aspera of femurLateral condyle and tibial tuberosity of tibia, via patellar tendonExtend knee; stabilize patella
Vastus medialisIntertrochanteric line, pectineal line, linea aspera, medial supracondylar line of femurMedial condyle and tibial tuberosity of tibia, via patellar tendonExtend knee; stabilize patella
Vastus intermediusLateral anterior shaft of femurTibial tuberosity of tibia, via patellar tendonExtend knee
SartoriusAnterior superior iliac spine of iliumMedial proximal shaft of tibiaFlex knee; flex, abduct, laterally rotate hip
Biceps femoris (long head)Ischial tuberosity of ischiumHead of fibulaFlex, laterally rotate knee; extend, laterally rotate hip
Biceps femoris (short head)Linea aspera, lateral supracondylar line of femurHead of fibulaFlex, laterally rotate knee; extend, laterally rotate hip
SemitendinosusIschial tuberosity of ischiumProximal medial shaft of tibiaFlex, medially rotate knee; medially rotate hip
SemimembranosusIschial tuberosity of ischiumMedial condyle of tibia; lateral condyle of femurFlex, medially rotate knee; medially rotate hip
PopliteusLateral condyle of femurProximal posterior tibiaMedially rotate knee
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Muscles Acting on the Ankle and Foot

MuscleOriginInsertionAction
Fibularis tertiusMedial lower shaft of fibula; interosseous membraneMetatarsal VDorsiflex, evert ankle
Extensor digitorum longusLateral condyle of tibia; shaft of fibula; interosseous membraneMiddle and distal phalanges II-VExtend toes; dorsiflex ankle
Extensor hallucis longusAnterior middle shaft of fibulaDistal phalanx IExtend hallux; dorsiflex ankle
Tibialis anteriorLateral condyle, proximal lateral shaft of tibiaMedial tarsal; metatarsal IDorsiflex, invert ankle
GastrocnemiusCondyles, popliteal surface, lateral supracondylar line of femurCalcaneusPlantar flex ankle; flex knee
SoleusHead, proximal shaft of fibula; middle shaft of tibiaCalcaneusPlantar flex ankle
PlantarisLateral supracondylar line of femurCalcaneusPlantar flex ankle; flex knee
Flexor digitorum longusPosterior shaft of tibiaDistal phalanges II-VFlex toes II-V
Flexor hallucis longusDistal shaft of fibula; interosseous membraneDistal phalanx IFlex hallux
Tibialis posteriorProximal posterior shaft of tibia and fibula; interosseous membraneTarsals; metatarsals II-VInvert, plantar flex, pronate ankle
Fibularis brevisDistal lateral shaft of fibulaBase of metatarsal VEvert ankle
Fibularis longusHead, proximal lateral shaft of fibulaMedial tarsal; metatarsal IEvert, plantar flex ankle
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Muscles of Facial Expression

MuscleOriginInsertionAction
Frontalis Galea aponeuroticaSubcutaneous tissue of eyebrowsElevate eyebrows; Draw scalp forward
OccipitalisSuperior nuchal line of occipital; temporal boneGalea aponeuroticaRetract scalp
Orbicularis oculiLacrimal bone; adjacent frontal bone and maxillaUpper and lower eyelids; skin around margin of orbitClose eye
Orbicularis orisModiolus of mouthSubmucosa, dermis of lipsClose, protrude lips
Zygomaticus majorAnterior zygomatic boneSuperolateral angle of mouthDraw angle of mouth upward and laterally
RisoriusZygomatic archModiolus of mouthDraw angle of mouth laterally
MentalisMandible near inferior incisorsSkin of chinElevate, protrude lower lip
BuccinatorLateral alveolar processes on mandible and maxillaOrbicularis oris; submucosa of cheek and lipsCompress cheek against teeth and gums; retract cheek from teeth
PlatysmaFascia of deltoid and pectoralis majorMandible; skin and subcutaneous tissue of lower faceDraw lower lip and angle of mouth down; open mouth widely
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Section Anterolateral Muscles of the Neck 13.2

MuscleOriginInsertionAction
Digastric: Lower margin of mandible (anterior belly) and mastoid process (posterior belly)By a connective tissue loop to hyoid boneOpen mouth, depress mandible
MylohyoidMedial surface of mandibleHyoid BoneOpen mouth, depress mandible
StylohyoidStyloid process of temporal boneHyoid BoneElevates, retracts hyoid
OmohyoidSuperior surface of scapulaHyoid bone, inferior borderDepress larynx, hyoid
SternohyoidManubrium and medial end of clavicleLower margin of HyoidDepress larynx, hyoid
ThyrohyoidThyroid cartilage of larynxHyoidDepress hyoid; elevate larynx
SternothyroidPosterior surface of ManubriumThyroid cartilage of larynxDepress larynx, hyoid
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Muscles Acting on the Head

MuscleOriginInsertionAction
SternocleidomastoidManubrium of sternum; medial clavicleMastoid process of temporal; lateral superior nuchal line of occipitalRotate, tilt head; flex neck
Splenius capitisInferior nuchal ligament; spinous processes of C7-T6Mastoid process of temporal; between nuchal lines of occipital; C1-C3Laterally flex, rotate neck; extend neck
Semispinalis capitisArticular processes of C4-C7 and transverse processes of T1-T6Between nuchal lines of occipital; spinous processes of C2-C5Rotate neck; extend neck
Longissimus capitisArticular processes of C4-C7; Transverse processes of T1-T5Mastoid processLaterally flex, rotate neck; extend neck
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