Orgo Chapter 3 Vocab

krabi's version from 2015-06-08 02:43


Question Answer
alkanessaturated hydrocarbons of general formula CnH2n+2
Alkyl compoundsSubstituted alkanes. One or more hydrogens is => replaced by another atom/group of atoms
Butyl groupCH3CH2CH2CH2
sec butyl groupCH3CH2CH(CH3)
tert-butyl group(CH3)3C
carbaniona compound containing a negatively charged carbon atom. A carbon based anion
CarbocationA molecule containing a trivalent positively charged carbon atom
cis"on the same side". Used to specify spatial relationships in rings and also in double bonds
Conformationthe 3 dimensional structure of a molecule. Conformational isomers are interconverted by rotations about bonds.
dihedral anglethe torsional (or twisting) angle between two bonds. In X-C-C-X the dihedral angle is the angle between the X-C-C and the C-C-X planes
eclipsed ethaneconformation of ethane in which all carbon-hydrogen bonds are as close as possible. this is an energy maximum
ethyl compoundssubstituted ethanes; CH3CH2-X compounds
functional groupan atom (or group of atoms) that generally reacts the same way no matter what molecule it is in.
hybridizationa model where fractions of pure atomic wave functions (s and p) are combined to form new hybrid wave functions (e.g. sp, sp2, sp3)
hydrideHydrogen with a pair of elections in its 1s orbital (H:-)
hydrocarbonsmolecules containing only carbon and hydrogen
isobutyl groupthe group (CH3)2CHCH2
isopropyl groupthe group (CH3)2CH
Primary carbon a carbon attached to one other carbon
propyl groupthe group CH3CH2CH2
Quaternary carbona carbon attached to four other carbons
secondary carbona carbon attached to two other carbons
sigma bonda bond with "cylindrical" symmetry
sp hybrida hybrid orbital made from combination of one s and one p atomic orbital
sp2 hybrida hybrid orbital made by the combination of one s and two p orbitals
sp3 hybrida hybrid orbital made by the combination of one s orbital and three p orbitals
staggered ethanethe conformation of ethane where the carbon hydrogen bonds are as far apart as possible (low-energy)
tertiary carbona carbon attached to three other carbons
torsional sstraindestabilization caused by the proximity of bonds (and the electrons in them)
trans"on opposite sides" - used to specify stereochemical (spatial) relationships in ring compounds and in double bonds
transition statethe high energy point separating two energy minima
unsaturated compounda compound not having the maximum number of hydrogens. e.g. alkenes and alkynes
van der waals forcesintermolecular forces in molecules caused by induced dipole-induced dipole interactions


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