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Orgb ch7(review)

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zawiholo's version from 2017-02-22 16:40

Section 1

Question Answer
four different approaches to stress1. Homeostatic/Medical, 2. Cognitive Appraisal, 3. Person-Environment Fit, 4. Psychoanalytic
Homeostatic/MedicalStress occurs when an external demand upsets an individual’s natural, steady-state balance.
Cognitive AppraisalIndividual perception and cognitive appraisal determines what is stressful
Person-Environment FitConfusing and conflicting expectations in a social role create stress.
PsychoanalyticStress is the discrepancy between the idealized self and the real self-image
The Physiology of Stress In preparing to fight or flee, the body: 1. Redirects blood to the brain and large-muscle groups 2. Increases alertness through improved vision, hearing, and other sensory processes 3. Releases glucose (blood sugar) and fatty acids into the bloodstream to sustain the body during the stressful event 4. Suppresses the immune system as well as restorative and emergent processes (such as digestion)
The Stress Response Whether activated by an ego-ideal/self-image discrepancy, a poorly defined social role, a cognitive appraisal suggesting threat, or a lack of balance, the resulting stress response is characterized by a predictable sequence of mind and body events. The stress response begins with the release of chemical messengers, primarily adrenaline, into the bloodstream. These messengers activate the sympathetic nervous system and the endocrine (hormone) system. These two systems work together to trigger four mind–body changes that prepare the person for fight or flight (see “The Physiology of Stress” on the previous page). As the body responds, the person shifts from a neutral posture to an offensive posture. The stress response can be very effective in preparing a person to handle legitimate emergencies through peak performance. It is neither inherently bad nor necessarily destructive.
memorize

Section 2

Question Answer
Sources of Stress at Work (task demands)change, lack of control, career progress, new technologies, temporal pressure
Sources of Stress at Work ( interpersonal demands) emotional toxins, sexual harrassament, poor leadership
Sources of Stress at Work ( role demands)role conflict: interrole, intratole and person-role, role ambiguity
Sources of Stress at Work ( physical demands) extreme environments, strenuous activities, hazardous substances, global trave
non working demands ( home demands)family expectations, child-rearing/day care arrangements
non working demands ( personal demands) workaholism, civic and colunteer work, traumatic events
Home DemandsThe wide array of home and family arrangements in contemporary American society has created great diversity in the arena of home demands. Traditional families may experience demands that create role conflicts or overloads that are difficult to manage. For example, the loss of good day care for children may be especially stressful for dual-career and single-parent families.31 The tension between work and family may lead to a real struggle for balance in life. This struggle led Rocky Rhodes, cofounder of Silicon Graphics, to establish four priorities for his life: God, family, exercise, and work.32 These priorities helped him reallocate his time for better balance in his life. As a result of the maturing of the American population, an increasing number of people face the added demand of parental care. Even when a person dedicates herself to reducing stress by integrating opposing social and work-related roles into a balanced, “whole” identity, the process is not an easy one
Personal DemandsSelf-imposed personal demands are the second major category of nonwork demands identified in Table 7.1. Workaholism , a form of addiction, may be the most notable of these stress-inducing demands.34 Some of the early warning signs of workaholism include over-commitment to work, inability to enjoy vacations and respites from work, preoccupation with work problems when away from the workplace, and insistence on working at home over weekends. Another type of personal demand comes from civic activities, volunteer work, and organizational commitments to religious or public service organizations. These demands become more or less stressful depending on their compatibility with work and family life, and their capacity to provide alternative satisfactions for the individual. Finally, traumatic events, such as the devastation of Hurricane Katrina, are stressful for people who experience them.35 Not all traumatic events are as catastrophic as Katrina, however. Job loss, failed exams, and romantic break-ups are all traumatic and may lead to distress if not addressed and resolved.
Work DemandsRole demands include role ambiguity as well as role conflict. But there are also three other categories of work demands: task demands, interpersonal demands, and physical demands. Table 7.1 does not present an exhaustive list of work demands but rather aims to show major causes of work stress in each of the four major domains of the work environment.
Task Demands include ( Task Demands, role demands, interpersonal demands and physical demands)Dramatic changes at work lead to uncertainty in a person's daily tasks and activities, provoking on-the-job pressure and stress.12 Globalization and large-scale business trends lead to change, as do smaller-scale shifts in company policy. In recent years, the global economic recession has led many companies to make stressful changes, such as downsizing. At least 20 million jobs were lost by the end of 2009 due to the crisis.13 Even during periods of growth, when hundreds of thousands of jobs are created every month, there may be significant numbers of jobs lost within certain sectors of the U.S. economy. For those who do not lose their jobs, underemployment, monotony, and boredom may be problematic. Technological innovation creates change and uncertainty for many employees, requiring additional training, education, and skill development. New technologies create both career stress and “technostress” for those who wonder if “smart” machines will replace them.14 Although they enhance the organization's productive capacity, new technologies may be viewed as the enemy by workers who must ultimately learn to use them. This creates a real dilemma for management. Intended to make work easier and more convenient, information technology may have a paradoxical effect and incur stress rather than relieve it. Lack of control is another major task-related source of stress, especially in positions that are difficult and psychologically demanding. The lack of control may be caused by the inability to: * influence the timing of tasks and activities; * select tools or methods for accomplishing the work; * make decisions that influence work outcomes; * exercise direct action to affect the work outcomes. Concerns over career progress and time pressures (or work overload) are two additional task demands triggering stress at work. Career stress has occurred in many organizations over the past two decades as middle-manager ranks have been thinned by mergers, acquisitions, and downsizing.15 Leaner organizations, unfortunately, mean overload for the retained employees. Fewer people doing the same amount of work or more creates time pressure, a leading cause of stress often associated with work overload. Time pressure may also result from poor time management skills. Not all task demands are negative. Challenge stressors that promote personal growth and achievement are positively related to job satisfaction and organizational commitment.
Role Demands The social psychological demands of the work environment may be every bit as stressful as task demands. People encounter two major categories of role stress at work: role conflict and role ambiguity.17 Role conflict results from inconsistent or incompatible expectations. The conflict may be an interrole, intrarole, or person-role conflict. Interrole conflict is caused by opposing expectations related to two separate roles assumed by the same individual, such as employee and parent. For example, the employee with a major sales presentation on Monday and a sick child at home Sunday night is likely to experience interrole conflict. Work-family conflicts such as these can lead individuals to withdrawal behaviors.18 Intrarole conflict is caused by opposing expectations related to a single role. For example, the manager who presses employees for both very fast and high-quality work may be viewed at some point as creating a conflict for employees. Ethics violations are likely to cause person-role conflicts. Employees expected to behave in ways that violate personal values, beliefs, or principles experience conflict. Person-role conflicts and ethics violations create a sense of divided loyalty for an employee. For example, if a distributor tells an organic farmer to cut costs by using a synthetic pesticide, the farmer may find that his personal beliefs are compromised by his role as a producer. Organizations with high ethical standards, such as Johnson & Johnson, are less likely to create ethical conflicts for employees. The second major cause of role stress is role ambiguity. Role ambiguity is the confusion a person experiences in relation to the expectations of others. Role ambiguity may be caused by misunderstanding what is expected, not knowing how to do it, or not knowing the result of failure to do it. For example, a new magazine employee asked to copyedit a manuscript may experience confusion because she mistakes copyediting for proofreading, she doesn't know what formatting style to use, or she doesn't know what will happen if she misses her deadline. A twenty-one-nation study examined middle managers' experiences in role conflict, role ambiguity, and role overload. The results indicated that role stress varies more by country than it does by demographic and organizational factors. For example, non-Western managers experience less role ambiguity and more role overload than do their Western counterparts.19 Another study of 2,273 Norwegian employees found that role conflict, role ambiguity, and conflict with coworkers increased under laissez-faire leadership, suggesting that this leadership style is destructive.20 A study of U.S. military personnel found that when role clarity was high in a supportive work group, psychological strain was low.
Interpersonal DemandsEmotional toxins, such as sexual harassment and poor leadership in the organization are examples of interpersonal demands. Emotional toxins are often generated at work by abrasive personalities.22 Emotional dissonance can spread through a work environment and cause a range of disturbances and stress.23 Organizations are increasingly less tolerant of sexual harassment, a gender-related interpersonal demand that creates a stressful working environment for both the person being harassed and for others. The vast majority of sexual harassment is directed at women in the workplace and is a chronic, yet preventable, problem.24 Poor organizational leadership and demanding managerial styles are leading causes of work stress for employees. Employees who feel secure under strong, directive leadership may be anxious under an open, self-directed style of management. Those comfortable with participative leaders may feel restrained by a directive style. Trust is an important characteristic of the leader-follower interpersonal relationship, so a threat to a worker's reputation with his supervisor may be especially stressful.25 Functional diversity in project groups also causes difficulty in the establishment of trusting relationships. Lack of trust increases job stress, which in turn leads to lower cohesiveness within the group.26
Physical DemandsExtreme environments, strenuous activities, hazardous substances, and global travel create physical demands for people at work. One cross cultural study that examined the effects of ambient temperature on role stress concluded that uncomfortable temperatures diminish human well-being, leading to the development of the term sweatshop for inhumane working conditions.27 The unique physical demands of work are often occupation-specific, such as the risk of gravity-induced loss of consciousness for military pilots flying high-performance fighters or jet lag and loss of sleep for globetrotting CEOs.28 Despite the fact that there are many positive aspects to business travel, the associated demands are increasingly recognized as sources of stress.29 Office work has its physical hazards as well. Noisy, crowded offices, such as those of some stock brokerages, can prove stressful, and even harmful. Working with a computer can also be stressful, especially if the ergonomic design of the workstation is not correct. Eyestrain, neck stiffness, and arm and wrist problems may result. Office designs that use partitions rather than full walls may create stress by offering little privacy and little protection from interruptions. Stress audits provide companies detailed assessments of possible workplace stressors. Identification and alleviation of overlooked stress factors can save a company money and boost productivity.
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Section 3

Section 4

Section 5

Section 6

Section 7