pajitafi's version from 2018-01-11 15:02

Section 1

Question Answer
Substitution (Alkanes)Cl2 in CCl4, uv light
Hydrogenation (Alkenes)H2 (g), heat in the presence of Ni
Halogenationrt, Br2 in CCl4 or aqueous Br2
Hydrohalogenation (alkenes)HX, r.t
hydration (alkenes)H2O (steam), presence of H3PO4 at 300c and 70 atm
Oxidation (cold dilute MnO4)product: diol
Oxidation (hot conc MnO4)product: carbox acid and ketones
Hydrolysis halogenoalkanesaqueous KOH, heat or reflux
Elimination halogenoalkanesethanolic KOH, heat or reflux
Form Nitriles halogenoalkanesethanolic KCN, heat or reflux
Formation of Amines halogenoalkanesconc. sol of NH3 in ethanol, heat in sealed tube

Section 2

Question Answer
Fermentation for alcoholstarch/sugar solution in the presence of yeast, anaerobic condition, 30-35c
Reduction of carbonyl compoundsgets alcohol, lithium aluminium hydride LiAlH4 in dry ether or H2 + Ni catalyst
Reaction with sodium -alcoholprod: H2 (g), when u write product put +,-
Substitution of alcoholhydrogen halide, forms halogenoalkanes // phosphorus iodide produce H3PO3 and the iodide, phosphorus chloride form POCl3, HCl and the chloride // thionyl chloride forms chloride, So2 and Hcl
Oxidation of alcoholacidified K2Cr2O7 or KMnO4, heat or reflux
Dehydration of alcoholexcess conc. H2SO4, 170c
Esterificationcarbox. acid, reflux in presence of small amt of conc H2SO4 // use acyl halide, r.t.
Iodoform Testfor alcohol, reagent is aqueous iodine and aqueous NaOH, warm, yellow crystals from (CHI3)
Lucas Testdistinguish 1,2,3 alcohols, lucas reagent, cloudy 3, slower to get cloudy 2, no reaction 1

Section 3

Question Answer
Fehling's Solutiontest C=O, alkaline sol. of Cu2+ ions, red precipitate of copper (I) oxide, Cu2O, ketone no reac
Tollen's Reagentcolourless sol of complex silver (I) ions, Ag(NH3)2+ , only aldehydes have silver mirror, ketones no reac
Oxidation of carbonylacidified K.., heat or reflux
Reac with hydrazine - carbonylH2NNH2, forms hydrazone
Reac with HCN -carbonylHCN + trace amt of NaOH/NaCN as catalyst, 10-20c, prod: hydroxynitrile
2,4- dinitrophenylhydrazinebla bla, warm, orange precipitate
Iodoform Testaqueous iodine, aqueous NaOH, warm, yellow crystals of CHI3
hydrolysis of nitriles forms carbox acid, dilute H2SO4, heat or reflux
forming salts - carboxylic acidbases, carbonates, metals
forming esters - carboxylic acidalcohols, reflux in presence of small conc H2SO4
forming acyl chlorides SoCl2 or PCl5, r.t.
hydrolysis of esters - acidreflux with dilute H2SO4, HCl
hydrolysis of esters -alkalinereflux with aqueous NaOH
reaction with ammonia , esterr.t. , prod: amides
reduction of estersLiAlH4, in dry ether, get alcohol