Org Theory Final

cahozadi's version from 2017-04-08 12:55

Section 1

Question Answer
BehaviorThe actions of People
Organizational BehaviorThe study of the actions of people at work
Employee productivityPerformance measure of both efficiency and effectiveness
AbsenteeismThe failure to show up for work
turnoverVoluntary or involuntary permanent withdrawal from an orgnization
Organzational Citizenship BehaviorDiscretionary behavior that is not part of an employees formal job requirements but that promotes the effective functioning of an organization
Workplace MisbehaviorIntentional employee behavior that is potentially damaging to the organization or to individuals within the organizaiton
AttitudesEvaluative statements, either favorable or unfavorable, concerning objects, people, or events
Cognitive ComponentPart of an attitude that's made up of the beliefs, opinions, knowledge, or info held by a person
Affective componentThe part of an attitude that's the eomtional or feeling part
Behavioral ComponentPart of an attitude that refers to an intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something
Job involvementDegree to which an employee identifies with his or her job, actively participates in it, and considers his or her job performance to be important to self-worth
Organizational commitmentDegree to which an imployee identifies with a particular organization and its goals and wishes to maintain membership in that organization
Perceived organizational supportEmployees general belief that their organization values their contribution and cares about their well-being
Employee engagemetnemployees being connected to, satisfied with, and enthusiastic about their jobs
cognitive DissonanceAny incompatibility or inconsistency between attitudes or between behavior and attitudes
Attitude surveysSurveys that elicit responses from employees through questions about how they feel about their jobs, work groups, supervisors, or the organization
Personalityunique combination of emotional, thought, and behavioral patterns that affect how a person reacts to situations and interacts with others
Big Five modelA perosnality trait model that examines extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience
Locus of ControlThe degree to which people believe they are masters of their own fate
MachiavellianismA measure of the degree to which people are pragmatic, maintain emotional distance, and believe that ends justify means.
Self-esteemIndividual's degree of like or dislike for himself or herself
Self-MonitoringPersonality trait that measures the ability to adjust behavior to external situational factors.
type A Personality Someone who is continually and aggreessively struggling to achieve more and more in less and less time
Proactive PersonalityPeople who identify opportunities, show initiative, take action, and persevere until meaningful change occurs
EmotionsIntense feelings that are directed at someone or something
Emotional IntelligenceThe ability to notice and to manage emotional cues and information
PerceptionA process by which we give meaning to our environment by organaization and interpreting senesory imprression
Attribution TheoryA theory used to explain how we judge people differently, depending on what meaning we attribute a given behavior
Fundamental attribution ErrorThe tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgements about the behavior of others
Self-serving biasThe tendency for inviduals to attribute their successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors
Assumed similarityThe assumption that others are like oneself
StereotypingJudging a person on the basis of one's perception of a group to which her or she belongs
halo EffectGeneral impression of an individual that is influenced by a single characteristic
LearningRelatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience
Operant conditoiningTheory of learning that says behavior is a function of its consequences
Social learning theoryTheory of learning that says people can learn through observation and direct experience
Shaping behaviorThe process of guiding learning in graduated steps, using reinforcement or lack of reinforcement

Section 2

Question Answer
CommunicationTransfer and understanding of meaning
Interpersonal communicationCommunication between two or more people
Organizational communicationAll the patterns, networks, and systems of communication within an organization
MessagePurpose to be conveyed
EncodingConverting a message into symbols
ChannelThe medium along which a message travels
decodingRetranslating a sender's message
Interpersonal communication processThe seven elements involved in transferring meaning from one person to another
NoiseAny disturbances with the transmission, receipt, or feedback of a message
Nonverbal CommunicationCommunication transmitted without words
Body LanguageGestures, facial configurations, and other body movements that convey meaning
Verbal intonationAn emphasis given to words or phrases that conveys meaning
FilteringDeliberate manipulation of info to make it appear more favorable
Information OverloadSituation in which info exceeds a person's processing capacity
JargonSpecialized terminology or tech language that members of a group use to communicate among themselves
Active listeningListening for full meaning without making premature judgements or interpretations
Formal communicationCommunication that takes place witthin perscribed organizational work arrangements
Informal communication Communication that is not defined by an organization's structural hierarchy
Downward CommunicationCommunication that flows downward from a manager to employees
upward communication Flows upward from employees to managers
Lateral communicationCommunication that takes place among any employees on the same organizational level
Diagonal communicationCommunication that cuts across work areas and organizational levels
Communication networksVariety of patterns of vertical and horizontal flows of organizational communication
GrapevineInformal organizational communication network
Communities of practiceGroups of people who share a concern, a set of problems, or a passion about a topic and who deepend their knowledge and experitise in that area by interacting on an ongoing basis

Section 3

Question Answer
MotivationProcess by which a persona's effors are energized, directed, and sustained toward attaining a goal
Hierarchy of needs theoryMaslow's theory that there is a hierarchy of five human needs: physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization
Physiological NeedsPerson's needs for food, drink, shelter, sexual satisfaction, and other physical needs
Safety needsPerson's needs for security and protection from physical and emotional harm
Social NeedsPerson's needs for affection, belongingness, acceptance, and friendship
Esteem needsPerson's needs for internal factors, such as self-respect, autonomy, and achievement and external factors such as status, recognition, and attention
Self-actualization needs A person's need to become what he or she is capable of becoming
Theory YThe assumption that employees are creative, enjoy work, seek responsibility, and can exercise self-directoin
Theory XThe assumption that employees dislike work, are lazy, avoid responsibility, and must be coerced to perform
Two-factor theoryHerzberg's motivation theory, which proposes that intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction and motivation whereas extrinsic factors are associated with job dissatisfaction
Hygiene FactorsFactors that eliminate job dissatisfaction but don't motivate
MotivatorsFactors that increase job satisfaction and motivaition
Three-needs theoryMcClelland's motivation theory which says that three acquired (not innate) needs -- achievement, power, and affilitation are major motives in work
Need for achievementDrive to succeed and excel in relation to a set of standards
Need for powerNeed to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise
Need for affiliationDesire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships
Goal-setting theoryProposition that specific goals increase performance that difficult goals, when accepted, result in higher performance than do easy goals
Self-Efficacy Individual's belief that he or she is capable of performing a task
Reinforcement theoryThe theory that behavior is a function of its consequences
ReinforcersConsequences immediately following a behavior that increase the probability that the behavior will be repeated
job DesignThe way tasks are combined to form complete jobs
job scope number of different tasks required in a job and the frequency with which those tasks are repeated
Job enlargemetnHorizontal expansion of a job by increasing job scope
Job enrichmentVertical expansion of a job by adding planning and evaluating responsibilities
Job depthDegree of control employees have over their work
Job characteristics modelFramework for analyzing and designing jobs that identifies five primary core job dimensions their interrelationships, and their impact on outcomes
Skill varietyThe degree to which a job requires a variety of activities so that an employee can use a number of different skills and talents
Task identity Degree to which a job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work
Task significance The degree to which a job has a substantial impact on the lives or work of other people
AutonomyDegree to which a job provides substantial freedom, independence, and discretion to an individual in scheduling work and determining the procedures to be used in carrying it out
Feedback Degree to which carrying out work activities required by a job results in an individual's obtaining direct and clear information about his or her performance effectiveness
Equity TheoryTheory that an employee compares his or her job's input: outcomes ration with that of relevant others and then corrects any inequity
ReferentsPersons, systems, or selves against which individuals compare themselves to assess equity
Distributive justicePerceived fiarness of the amount and allocation of rewards among individuals
Procedural justicePerceived fairness of the process used to determine the distribution of rewards
Expectancy TheoryIndividual tends to act in a certain way, based on the expectation that the act will be followed by a a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual
Compressed workweekA workweek in which employees work longer house per day but fewer days per week
Flexible work timeScheduling system in which employees are required to work a certain number of hours per week but are free which limits to vary the hours of work
Job sharingPractice of having two or more people split a full-time job
Telecommutingjob approach in which employees work at home and are linked to the workplace by computer and modem
Open-book managementMotivational apparoach in which an organization's financial statements are shared with all employees
Employee recognition programsPrograms that consist of personal attention and expressing interest, approval, and appreciation for a job well done.
Pay for performance programsVariable compensaiton plans that pay employees on the basis of some performance measure
Stock OptionFinancial instruments that give employees the right to purchase shares of stock at a set price