managers are constantly challenged to foster a win-win situation (mutuality of interest) between individual and organizational interests. Organization members need to actively cooperate with actual and potential adversaries for the common good.
enthusiastic agreement and demonstrating initiative and persistence while completing the assignment
reluctant compliance and requiring prodding to satisfy minimum requirements
says no, makes excuses, stalls, or put up arguments
Influence research: soft tactics are better for generating commitment and are perceived as fairer than hard tactics. Ingratiation -- making the boss feel good through complements and being helpful -- and slightly improved performance appraisal results and make the boss like you a lot more. Influence through domination is a poor strategy for both men and women. Influence is a complicated and situational process that needs to be undertaken with care, especially across cultures.
Responsible and ethical managers strive to use socialized power (primary concern is for others) rather than personalized power (primary concern for self). Research found higher organizational commitment among employees with bosses were used uplifting power than among those with power-hungry bosses who relied on dominating power.
sharing varying degrees of power and decision-making authority with the lower-level employees to tap their full potential. Can range from consulting with employees, to having them actively participate in making decisions, to granting them decision-making authority through delegation
Delegation gives employees more than a participatory role in decision-making. It allows them to make their own work-related decisions.
Greater delegation is associated with the following factors:
1. Competent employee
2. Employees shared managers tasked objectives
3. Manager had a long-standing and positive relationship with employee
4. The lower-level person was also a supervisor
Boils down to one pivotal factor, trust. Employees can get managers to trust them by demonstrating personal initiative (going beyond formal job requirements and being self-starters).