Org Behavior Kreitner Kinicki Chapter 15

Updated 2007-08-02 07:32



Question Answer
Mutuality of interestmanagers are constantly challenged to foster a win-win situation (mutuality of interest) between individual and organizational interests. Organization members need to actively cooperate with actual and potential adversaries for the common good.

"Soft" influence tactics

Question Answer
1. rational persuasiontrying to convince someone with reason, logic, or facts
2. inspirational appealstrying to build enthusiasm by appealing to others emotions, ideals, or values
3. consultationgetting others to participate in planning, making decisions, and changes
4. ingratiationgetting someone in a good mood prior to making a request; being friendly, helpful, and using praise or fluttery
5. personal appealsreferring to friendship and loyalty when Nick in a request

"Hard" influence tactics

Question Answer
1. exchangemaking express or implied promises and trading favors
2. coalition tacticsgetting others to support your effort to persuade someone
3. pressuredemanding compliance or using intimidation or threats
4. legitimating tacticsbasing a request on one's authority or right, organizational rules or policies, or express or implied support from superiors

Influence outcomes

Question Answer
1. commitmententhusiastic agreement and demonstrating initiative and persistence while completing the assignment
2. compliancereluctant compliance and requiring prodding to satisfy minimum requirements
3. resistancesays no, makes excuses, stalls, or put up arguments
Influence research: soft tactics are better for generating commitment and are perceived as fairer than hard tactics. Ingratiation -- making the boss feel good through complements and being helpful -- and slightly improved performance appraisal results and make the boss like you a lot more. Influence through domination is a poor strategy for both men and women. Influence is a complicated and situational process that needs to be undertaken with care, especially across cultures.

Cialdini's principles of influence and persuasion

Question Answer
Likingpeople tend to like those who like them
Reciprocitybelief that good and bad deeds should be repaid in kind
Social proofpeople tend to follow those most like themselves
Consistencypeople tend to do what they are publicly committed to doing
Authoritypeople tend to defer to and respect credible experts
Scarcitypeople tend to want more of what has limited availability

French and Raven's five bases of power

Question Answer
Reward powerrewarding compliance
Coercive powerpunishing noncompliance
Legitimate powerrelying on formal authority
Expert powerproviding needed information
Referent powerrelying on personal attraction
Responsible and ethical managers strive to use socialized power (primary concern is for others) rather than personalized power (primary concern for self). Research found higher organizational commitment among employees with bosses were used uplifting power than among those with power-hungry bosses who relied on dominating power.


Question Answer
Empowermentsharing varying degrees of power and decision-making authority with the lower-level employees to tap their full potential. Can range from consulting with employees, to having them actively participate in making decisions, to granting them decision-making authority through delegation


Delegation gives employees more than a participatory role in decision-making. It allows them to make their own work-related decisions.
Greater delegation is associated with the following factors:
Question Answer
1. Competent employee
2. Employees shared managers tasked objectives
3. Manager had a long-standing and positive relationship with employee
4. The lower-level person was also a supervisor
Boils down to one pivotal factor, trust. Employees can get managers to trust them by demonstrating personal initiative (going beyond formal job requirements and being self-starters).

Barriers to delegation

Question Answer
1. Belief in the fallacy "if you want it done right, do it yourself."
2. Lack of confidence and trust in lower-level employees.
3. Low self-confidence.
4. Fear of being called lazy.
5. Vague job definition.
6. Fear of competition from those below.
7. Reluctance to take the risks involved in depending on others.
8. Lack of controls that provide early warning of problems with delegated duties.
9. Poor example set by bosses who do not delegate.

Organizational politics : intentional acts of influence to enhance or protect the self interests of individuals or groups

Organizational politics are triggered by uncertainty:
Question Answer
1. Unclear objectives
2. Vague performance measures
3. Ill defined processes
4. Strong individual or group competition
5. Any type of change

Political action occurs at:

Question Answer
Individualindividual pursuit of general self interests
Coalitiontemporary groupings of people who actively pursue a single issue
Network levelscooperative pursuit of general self interests
Coalitions are in formal, temporary, and single issue of alliances.

Political tactics

Question Answer
1. Attacking or blaming others.use to avoid or minimize association with failure. Reactive when scapegoating is involved. Proactive when goal is to reduce competition for limited resources.
2. Using information as a political tool.involves the purposeful withholding or distortion of information. Obscuring and unfavorable situation by overwhelming superiors with information.
3. Creating a favorable image. (also known as impression management)dressing/grooming for success. Adhering to organizational norms and drawing attention to one successes and influence. Taking credit for other accomplishments.
4. Developing a base of supportgetting prior support for a decision. Building others commitment to a decision through participation.
5. Praising others (ingratiation).making influential people feel good (apple polishing)
6. Forming power coalitions with strong allies.teaming with powerful people who can get results
7. Associating with influential people.building a support network both inside and outside the organization
8. Creating obligations (reciprocity).creating social debts (I did you a favor, so you owe me a favor)

Impression management tactics

Favorable upward impression management:
Question Answer
1. Job focusedmanipulating information about one's job performance
2. Supervisor focusedpraising or doing favors for the boss
3. Self focusedbeing polite and nice

Unfavorable upper impression management

Question Answer
1. Decreasing performance
2. Not working to potential
3. Withdrawing
4. Displaying a bad attitude
5. Broadcasting one's limitations

Managing organizational politics

Question Answer
1. Screen out overly political individuals at hiring time
2. Create an open book management system
3. Make sure every employee knows how the business works and has personal line of sight to key results with corresponding measurable objectives for individual accountability.
4. Have nonfinancial people interpret periodic financial and accounting statements for all employees.
5. Establish formal conflict resolution and grievance processes.
6. As an ethics filter, do only what you would do comfortable doing on national television.
7. Publicly recognize and reward people who get real results without political games