Org Behavior Kreitner Kinicki Chapter 11

Updated 2007-07-19 00:09
Org Behavior Kreitner Kinicki Chapter 11

Chapter 11


A workgroup becomes a team when:
1. Leadership becomes a shared activity
2. Accountability shifts from strictly individual to both individual and collective
3. The group develops its own purpose or mission
4. Problem solving becomes a way of life, not a part-time activity
5. Effectiveness is measured by the group’s collected outcomes and products

4 types of work teams

Team typebrief descriptionexamples degree of technical specializationdegree of coordination with other work unitswork cyclestypical outputs
Advice teamsprovide information for managerial decisionscommittees, review panels, quality circles, employee involvement groups, advisory councilslowlowwork cycles can be brief or long; one cycle can be team lifespandecisions, selections, suggestions, proposals, recommendations
Production teamsperforming organizations day-to-day operationsassembly teams, manufacturing craters, mining teams, flight attendant crews, data processing groups, maintenance crewslowhighwork cycles typically repeated or continuous process; cycles often briefer than team lifespanfood, chemicals, components, assemblies, retail sales, customer service, equipment repairs
Project teamsapply specialized knowledge to solve problems needed to complete a specific projectresearch groups, planning teams, architect teams, engineering teams, development teams, task forceshighlow for traditional units or high or cross functional unitswork cycles typically differ for each new project; one cycle can be team lifespanplans, designs, investigations, presentations, prototypes, reports, findings,
Action teamshighly skilled and highly coordinated to provide peak performance on demandsports teams, entertainment groups, expeditions, negotiating teams, surgery teams, cockpit crews, military platoons and squads, police and fire teamshighhighbrief performance events, often repeated under new conditions, requiring extended training or preparationcombat missions, expeditions, contracts, lawsuits, concerts, surgical operations, competitive events, disaster assistance

Model of effective work teams. Teams require three things:

1. A team friendly organization to provide a support system
2. Individuals with teamwork competencies
3. Effective teamwork

2 team effectiveness criteria

1. Performance. Getting the job done.
2. Team viability. Satisfied members who are willing to continue contributing to the team.

Teamwork competencies team members need to possess

Question Answer
1. Orients team to problem-solving situationassists the team in arriving at a common understanding of the situation or problem. Determines the important elements of a problem situation. Seeks out relevant data related to the situation or problem.
2. Organizes and manages team performancehelps team establish specific, challenging, and excepted team goals. Monitors, evaluates, and provides feedback on team performance. Identifies alternative strategies or reallocates resources to address feedback on team performance.
3. Promote a positive team environmentassists in creating and reinforcing norms of tolerance, respect, and excellent. Recognizes and praises other team members’ efforts. Helps and supports other team members. Models desirable team member behavior.
4. Facilitate and manages task conflictencourages desirable and discourages undesirable team conflict. Recognizes the type and source of conflict confronting the team and implements an appropriate resolution strategy. Employs win-win negotiation strategies to resolve team conflicts.
5. Appropriately promotes perspectivesdefendant stated preferences, argues for a particular point of view, and withstands pressure to change position for another that is not supported by logical or knowledge-based arguments. Changes or modifies position is a defensible argument is made by another team member. Projects courtesy and friendliness to others while arguing position.

Characteristics of effective teamwork

Question Answer
1. Clear purposethe vision, mission, goal, or task of the team has been defined and is now accepted by everyone. There is an action plan.
2. Informalitythe climate tends to be informal, comfortable, and relaxed. There are no obvious tensions or signs of boredom.
3. Participationthere is much discussion, and everyone is encouraged to participate.
4. Listeningthe members using effective listening techniques such as questioning, paraphrasing, and summarizing to get out ideas.
5. Civilized disagreementthere is disagreement, but the team is comfortable with this and shows no signs of awaiting, smoothing over, or suppressing conflict.
6. Consensus decisionsfor important decisions, the goal is substantial but not necessarily unanimous agreement through open discussion of everyone's ideas, avoidance of formal voting, or easy compromises.
7. Open communicationteam members feel free to express their feelings on the tasks as well as on the group's operation. There are a few hidden agendas. Communication takes place outside of meetings.
8. Clear roles and work assignmentsthere are clear expectations about the roles played by each team member. When action is taken, clear assignments are made, accepted, and carried out. Work is fairly distributed among team members.
9. Shared leadershipwhile the team has a formal leader, leadership function shift from time to time depending on the circumstances, the needs of the group, and the skills of the members. The formal leader models the appropriate behavior and helps establish positive norms.
10. External relationsthe team spends time developing key outside relationships, mobilizing resources, and building credibility with important players in other parts of the organization.
11. Style diversitythe team has a broad spectrum of team-player types including members who emphasize attention to task, goal setting, focus on process, and questions about how the team is functioning.
12. A self-assessmentperiodically the team stops to examine how well it is functioning in what may be interfering with its effectiveness

Why teams fail

Unrealistic expectations

Common management mistakes with teams

1. Weak strategies
2. Creating a hostile environment for teams
3. The adhesive teams
4. Not learning from team experience
5. They team assignments
6. A poor team staffing
7. Inadequate training
8. Lack of trust

Common team member mistakes

1. Trying too much too soon
2. Experiencing conflict over differing work styles and personalities
3. Ignoring important group dynamics
4. Resisting change
5. Exhibiting poor interpersonal skills and chemistry
6. Displaying a lack of trust

Ways managers can build trust

1. Communication
2. Support
3. Respect (especially delegation)
4. Fairness
5. Predictability
6. Competence

Group cohesiveness

A shared sense of togetherness or a “we” feeling


Socio-emotional cohesiveness involves emotional satisfaction:
1. Keep the group relatively small.
2. Strive for a favorable public image to increase the status and prestige of the longing
3. Encourage interaction and cooperation
4. Emphasize members’ common characteristics and interests
5. Point out environmental threats to rally the group


Instrumental cohesiveness goal directed togetherness:
1. Regularly updated and clarified the group schools
2. Give it every group member a vital piece of the action
3. Channel each group member’s special talents toward the common goals
4. Recognized and equitably reinforce every member’s contributions
5. Frequently remind group members they need each other to get the job done


Commitment to task among group members strengthens the cohesiveness to performance linkage. This link is small but significant and a stronger for smaller groups. Success can build group cohesiveness but cohesiveness is not a cure-all for group problems. Too much cohesiveness can lead to groupthink.


1. Cooperation is superior to competition in promoting achievement and productivity.
2. Cooperation is superior to individualistic efforts in promoting achievement and productivity.
3. Cooperation without intergroup competition promotes higher achievement and productivity in cooperation with intergroup competition


Question Answer Column 3
Quality circlessmall groups of volunteers who meet regularly to sell quality related problems in their work areaadvice teams
Virtual teamsphysically dispersed workgroups that conduct their business via modern information technologies such as the Internet e-mail and video conferencesadvice or project teams
Self managed teamsworkgroups that perform their own administrative chores such as planning, scheduling, and staffingproduction, project, or action teams

Eight attributes of high performance teams

1. Participate hip leadership
2. Shared responsibility
3. A lined on purpose
4. A high communication
5. A future focused for growth
6. Focused on task
7. Creative talents applied
8. Rapid response

Self management leadership

1. Encourage self reinforcement (getting team members to praise each other for good work and results)
2. Encourage self observation/evaluation (teaching team members to judge how well they are doing)
3. Encourage self expectation (and encouraging team members to expect high performance from themselves and the team)
4. Encourage self goal setting (having the team said its own performance goals)
5. Encourage a rehearsal (getting team members to think about and practice the past)
6. Encourage self criticism (encouraging team members to be critical of their own poor performance)