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Org Behavior Kreitner Kinicki Chapter 1

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Updated 2007-07-08 21:53

Summary

Chapter 1. Organizational behavior is an interdisciplinary field dedicated to better understanding and managing people at work. It is both research and application oriented. Except for teaching/research positions, one does not normally get a job in OB. Rather, because OB is a horizontal discipline, OB concepts and lessons are applicable to virtually every job category, business function, and professional specialty.

Seven people centered practices

1. Job security (eliminate fear of layoffs)
2. Careful hiring (emphasizing a good fit with the company culture)
3. Power to the people (via decentralization and self managed teams)
4. Generous pay-for-performance
5. Lots of training
6. Less emphasis on status (to build a “we” feeling)
7. Trust building (through the sharing of critical information)

Five landmarks in the understanding and management of people

1. The human relations movement
2. Equality movement
3. The E-business revolution
4. The age of human and social capital
5. The emerging area of positive OB

McGregor's theory X and theory Y

Theory XTheory Y
Most people dislike work; they avoid it when they canwork is a natural activity, like play or rest
Most people must be coerced and threatened with punishment before they will work. People require close direction when they are working. People are capable of self direction and self-control if they are commit 82 objectives.
Most people actually prefer to be directed. They tend to avoid responsibility and exhibit little ambition. They are interested only in security. People generally become committed to organizational objectives if they are rewarded for doing so.
The typical employee can learn to accept and seek responsibility.
The typical member of the general population has imagination, ingenuity, and creativity.
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What is TQM?

An organizational culture dedicated to training, continuous improvement, and customer satisfaction.

The human side of quality improvement

Deming called for:
1. Formal training in statistical process control techniques and teamwork
2. Hopeful leadership, rather than order dating and punishment
3. Elimination of fear so employees will feel free to ask questions
4. Emphasis on continuous process improvement rather than on numerical quotas
5. Teamwork
6. Elimination of barriers to good workmanship

Principles of TQM

1. Do it right first time to eliminate costly rework and product recalls
2. Listen to and learn from customers and employees
3. Make continuous improvement and everyday matter
4. Build teamwork trust and mutual respect

Perfect storm of current and emerging trends

1. Spread of advanced technology to developing countries with rapidly growing middle classes
2. Off shoring of increasingly sophisticated jobs
3. Comparatively poor math and science skills among America's youth
4. Post-9/11 decline in highly skilled immigrants and graduate students
5. Massive brain drain caused by retiring post-World War II baby-boom generation

Major issues for modern management

1. Greater access to information for everyone
2. Leadership is migrating to lower levels and outside the organization
3. Development of nontraditional leadership networks.
4. Followers have more information earlier in the decision-making process
5. Greater influence for unethical leaders with limited resources.
6. Or contact between senior leaders and their followers

Human versus Social Capital

Individual Human CapitalSocial Capital
Intelligence/Abilities/KnowledgeShared Visions/Goals
Visions/Dreams/AspirationsShared Values
Technical and Social SkillsTrust
Confident/Self EsteemMutual Respect/Goodwill
Initiatives/EntrepreneurshipFriendship/Support Groups
Adaptability/FlexibilityMentoring/Positive Role Modeling
Readiness to LearnParticipation/Empowerment
CreativityConnections/Sources
EnthusiasmNetworks/Affiliations
Motivation/CommitmentCooperation/Collaboration
PersistenceTeamwork
Ethical Standards/CourageCamaraderie
HonestyAssertive (Rather Than Aggressive) Communication
Emotional MaturityFunctional (Rather Than Dysfunctional) Conflict
Win-Win Negotiations
Philanthropy/Volunteering
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Human capital involves individual characteristics, social capital and while social relationships. Human capital is the productive potential of an individual's knowledge and actions. Social capital is productive potential resulting from strong relationships, goodwill, trust, and cooperative effort social capital is necessary to Individual human capital for the good of the organization of knowledge sharing and networking

Luthans’ CHOSE model of key POB dimensions

Question Answer
Confidence/self-efficacyOne’s belief (confidence) in being able to successfully execute a specific task in a given context
HopeOne who sets goals, figures out how to achieve them (identify pathways), and is self motivated to accomplish them, that is, willpower and “way power”
OptimismPositive outcome expectancy and/or a positive consul attribution, but is still emotional and Lincoln happiness, perseverance, and success.
Subjective well-beingBeyond happiness emotion, how people cognitively process and evaluate their lives, the satisfaction with their lives
The notional intelligenceCapacity for recognizing and managing one's own and others' emotions -- self-awareness, self motivation, being empathetic, and having social skills
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Theory X employees, according to traditional thinking, dislike work, require close supervision, and are primarily interested in security. According to the modern theory Y view, employees are capable of self direction, a seeking responsibility, and have been created

Skills exhibited by an effective manager

1. Clarifies goals and objectives for everyone involved
2. Encourages participation, a Howard communication, and suggestions
3. Plans and organizes for an orderly workflow
4. As technical and administrative expertise to answer organization -- related questions
5. Facilitates workflow team building, training, coaching, and support
6. Provide feedback honestly and constructively
7. Keeps things moving by relying on schedule, deadlines, and helpful reminders
8. Controls details without being overbearing
9. Applies reasonable pressure from goal accomplishment
10. Empowers and delegates key duties to others while maintaining gold clarity and a commitment
11. Recognizes good performance with rewards and positive reinforcement

Wilson's managerial skills: 4 useful lessons

1. Dealing effectively with people is what management is all about
2. Managers at high skills mastery tend to have better subunit performance and employee morality managers with low skills mastery
3. Effective female and male managers do not have significantly different skill profiles, contrary to claims in the popular business presence recent years
4. At all career stages, derailed managers (those who failed to achieve their potential) tended to be the ones who overestimated their skill mastery (rated themselves higher than their employees did). This prompted the following conclusion from the researcher: “when selecting individuals for promotion to managerial positions, those who are arrogant, aloof, insensitive, and defensive should be avoided.”

Wilson's profile of effective managers

1. Clarifies goals and objectives
2. Encourages participation
3. Plans and organizes
4. As technical and administrative expertise
5. Facilitates work for team building and coaching
6. Provide feedback
7. Keeps things moving
8. Controls details
9. Applies reasonable pressure for a goals accomplishment
10. It empowers and delegates
11. Recognizes and rewards good performance

 

Management is the process of working with and through others to achieve organizational objectives in an efficient and ethical manner

Evolution of the 21st-Century Manager

Past ManagersFuture Managers
Primary RoleOrder Giver, Privileged Elite, Manipulator, ControllerFacilitator, Team Member, Teacher, Advocate, Sponsor, Coach
Learning and KnowledgePeriodic Learning, Narrow SpecialistContinuous Lifelong Learning, the Generalist with Multiple Specialties
Compensation CriteriaTime, Effort, RainedSkills, Results
Cultural OrientationMonocultural, MonolingualMulticultural, Multilingual
Primary Source of InfluenceFormal AuthorityKnowledge (Technical and Interpersonal)
View of PeoplePotential ProblemPrimary Resource; Human Capital
Primary Communication PatternVerticalMulti-Directional
Decision-Making StyleLimited Input For To Individual DecisionsBroad-Based Input for Joint Decisions
Ethical ConsiderationsAfterthoughtForethought
Nature of Interpersonal RelationshipsCompetitive (Win-Lose)Cooperative (Win-Win)
Handling Of Power and Key InformationHoard and Restrict AccessShare and Broaden Access
Approach to ChangeResistFacilitate
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5 sources of OB research insights

Question Answer
Meta-analysisstatistically pooled evidence from several studies
Field studyevidence for real-life situations
Laboratory studyevidence from contrived situations
Sample surveyquestionnaire data
Case studyobservation of a single person, group, or organization
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3 uses of OB research findings

Question Answer
Instrumental usedirectly applying research findings to practical problems
Conceptual usederive general enlightenment from findings
Symbolic useresearch results are relied on to verify or legitimize already held positions
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