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robbypowell's version from 2017-02-09 06:57

infections (not just for genitalia)

Question Answer
Streptococcus organisms: are gram _____ (positive/negative) _____ (aerobes/anaerobes/facultative anaerobes) and what morphology?G+; Anaerobes; cocci (e.g. Strept. Pyogenes, Strept. Viridens)
Staphylococcus organisms: are gram _____ (positive/negative) _____ (aerobes/anaerobes/facultative anaerobes) what morphology?G+; Anaerobes; cocci (e.g. Staph aureus)
Mycobacterial organisms: are gram _____ (positive/negative) _____ (aerobes/anaerobes/facultative anaerobes) what morphology?G+; Aerobes; bacilli (e.g. M. tuberculosis, M. leprae, M. avium intracellulare)
Spirochetes: are gram _____ (positive/negative) _____ (aerobes/anaerobes/facultative anaerobes) what morphology?g. negative; anaerobes (with some exceptions); coiled, helical (e.g Treponema pallidum --> syphillis)
Actinomyces: are gram _____ (positive/negative) _____ (aerobes/anaerobes/facultative anaerobes) what morphology?g. positive; anaerobic; filamentous rods (e.g. A. israelii, A. naeslundii, A. odontolyticus)
(which condition?) Bacterial caused (s. progenies &/or S. Aureus) Acute pustular skin eruption; mainly around the mouth & nostrilsImpetigo
"corn flake lesions" around the mouth or nostrils is associated with what condition? what are two causative organisms?Impetigo; S. Aureus & S. Pyogenes
what is the treatment and prognosis for Impetigo?Topical & systemic antibiotic (penicillin); Good prognosis
Ghon complex is associated with what stage of what disease? Primary stage; Tuberculosis
Lesion in the lung with a calcified focal site and an associated lymph node with Casseous necrosis?Ghon Complex (Primary Tuberculosis)
What type of necrosis is associated with Tuberculosis?Casseous necrosis aka Necrotizing Granulomatous necrosis
What stain is used to identify tuberculosis histologically?Ziehl-nielsen (aka Acid fast stain)
Acid fast stain / Ziehl Nielsen stain is used for identification of what condition?Tuberculosis
necrotizing granuloma in the lung with primary lymph node involvement is a sign of what condition?tuberculosis
_____ disease is Tuberculosis of the spine causing collapse and fusion of several thoracic vertebraePott's disease (vertebral tuberculosis)
Lupus Vulgaris is a cutaneous manifestation of what condition?Tuberculosis
cervical glandular swelling on lateral neck most commonly associated with but not definitively diagnostic for tuberculosisScrofula
t/f: tuberculosis can manifest with signs in the mouthTrue (ulcerative lesions on mucosa or tongue)
what is Treatment (and duration of tx) and Prognosis of tuberculosis?Tx: Isoniazid & rifampin protocols (18-24 months); prognosis (with treatment) is good
what test for tuberculosis will show if someone has ever had TB?PPD skin test
PPD skin test is used as a screening tool for what condition?Exposure to Tuberculosis
Lesion associated with primary syphilis at the site of contact is called a/an _______Chancre
a Chancre is associated with what stage of what condition?primary stage Syphilis (painless ulceration at site of contraction)
What stage of syphilis can have Systemic, CNS, & Cardiovascular involvement?Tertiary (not all untreated syphilis progresses to tertiary) (gumma is the type of lesion associated with tertiary syphilis)
What is the incubation period for primary syphilis?21 days
how long does it take for chancre from primary syphilis to resolve if untreated? if treated w/ antibiotic therapy?3-6 weeks (untreated); 1-2 weeks (antibiotic)
diagnostic stain for histological screening for syphilisImmunoperoxidase
How long after infection will Secondary Syphilis appear?2-6 months after infection (in untreated patient); ((
Does serum testing show syphilis in primary syphilis? secondary syphilis? tertiary syphilis?primary NO; secondary YES; Tertiary YES
how does secondary syphilis manifest in the mouth (if it does)Mucous patches of oral mucosa or tongue
what is the causative organism for syphilis?Treponema Pallidum
Condyloma Lata is sign of what stage of what condition?Secondary Syphilis
Most common screening test for syphilis (not stain, to be clear)VDRL (Venereal disease research laboratory)
What is the treatment for syphilis?Long acting Penicillin
gummatous necrosis is a sign of what stage of what disease?Tertiary stage Syphilis
T/F: Tertiary syphilis may appear even after apparent successful treatment of primary infectionTrue
T/F: Treatment and resolution of primary syphilis ensures that the condition is resolved and will not progress to subsequent stagesFalse (resolved treated syphilis can return years later as tertiary syphilis)
Rhagades are fissures, cracks, or linear scars in the skin, especially at the angles of the mouth and nose, if present in children this indicates what condition?Congenital syphilis
Hutchinson's triad: what are the three features & what condition is the triad associated with?features: Blindness, Deafness, & Dental Anomalies; Congenital Syphilis
An acute, deep suppurative infection w/ draining sinus tracts containing bacterial colonies – WITH “Sulfur granules”Actinomycosis
causative pathogen for ActinomycosisActinomyces israelii, (a filamentous anaerobic g. positive bacteria)(normally preset in oral flora)
Actinomycosis manifests in the cervicofacial region ______% of the time that it presents55%
condition that can cause Invasion of bone, localized osteomyelitis & bone destruction & periosteitis (nodular, lumpy) w/ draining fest. tracts w/ “sulfur granules(skin & mucosa) – “lumpy jaw diseaseActinomycosis
histological presentation of bacterial colonies w/ a periphery of filamentous organisms radiating in a sunburst or ray pattern (Sulfur granules) is diagnostic of what conditionActinomycosis
What is the treatment for actinomycosis?Surgical debridement & high daily dose of penicillin (for at least 10 days) (sometimes IV and sometimes for 1-2 months)
common, benign condition, most often caused by Bartonella henselae in 80% & Afipia felis in 20% of casesCat Scratch fever
What is the most common opportunistic oral infection & causative organism?Candidiasis; Candida Albicans
Most important treatment for Candidiasis (actually 2 things)anti-fungals & treat underlying cause of immunosuppression
3 types of patient that most at risk for Pseudomembranous CandidiasisNewborns, HIV/AIDS patients, & Uncontrolled diabetics
type of candidiasis most commonly associated with removable prostheses and burning sensationAtrophic Candidiasis
Leukoplakia-like Candidiasis is what type?Hyperplastic Candidiasis (Microscopic examination is required to rule out epithelial dysplasia)
an asymptomatic infection on mid-dorsal tongue and atrophied mucosal surface is a sign of what type of infection?Median Rhomboid Glossitis a type of Candidiasis
t/f: biopsy is needed for all suspected Hyper plastic Candidiasis casesTrue (rule out epithelial dysplasia)
t/f: suspected Hyperplastic Candidiasis cases may be treated w/ or w/out confirmation of diagnosisFalse (biopsy necessary to rule out epithelial dysplasia)
3 drugs that can be used to treat fungal infections, 2 are localized in scope and 1 systemicNystatin & Clotrimazole (local); Fluconazole (systemic)
How should Denture-borne Candida be treated?with denture soaks (2% Sodium Benzoate best because it doesn't damage denture)
what is A deep (lung) fungal infection caused by inhaling dust from spore-infected bird droppings? what is the causative organism?Histoplasmosis; Histoplasma capsulatum
Histoplasmosis is most commonly encountered where geographically?Ohio-Mississippi River Valley
How is the acute form of Histoplasmosis treated? (deep lung infection caused by inhaling bird dropping dust)Amphoterecin B (anti fungal)
the most common infection in birds and has been known to be transmitted to humans under certain conditions (invasive & non-invasive)Aspergillosis (fungal infection) (A. fumigatus & A. flavus)
fungus ball in the lung is a sign of what condition?Aspergillosis
hyphae fungal infection with branching at 90 degree angle (only seen in immunocompromised patient) that can result in blocked blood vessels and ischemic necrosisMucormycosis
This type of virus causes Herpangina & Hand, Foot & mouth diseaseCoxsackie virus (group A)
acute febrile illness associated with small vesicular or ulcerative lesions on the posterior oropharyngeal structures, caused by what type of virus?Herpangina; Coxsackie
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virus

Question Answer
Mutlinucleated Epithelial Cells from a smear of vesicle content are a sign of what condition?Herpes Simplex Virus
this Reactivated infection appears in unilateral vesicular eruption, following nerve distribution– most frequently those of dermatomes T3-L3 & trigeminal n. ganglia w/ lesional distribution along ophthalmic, maxillary & mandibular nervesvaricella zoster (HHV3) (shingles)
condition with Shingles of the ear (external auditory canal) along with the ipsilateral facial & auditory nerves resulting in facial n. paralysis, hearing deficits, vertigo, tinnitus & other symptomsRamsay-Hunt Syndrome
Oral Hairy Leukoplakia (aka HIV-Keratosis) is caused by what virus?Epstein Barr (this condition no malignant potential)
Swollen epithelial cells w/ nuclei exhibiting “nuclear beading” is histological sign of what virus infection?Epstein Barr
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which HHV is associated with these conditions

Question Answer
Primary herpetic gingivostomatitis, recurrent herpes infectionsHHV-1 (HSV-1)
Although found on skin/mucosa below waist, may also be found in mouth (HSV-1-like)HHV-2 (HSV-2)
Chickenpox, recurrent infection in adults as facial/skin/oral shinglesHHV-3 (Varicella-zoster V)
Hairy leukoplakia, Infectious mononucleosis, Burkitt lymphoma, Nasopharyngeal carcinoma, CNS lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorderHHV-4 (Eppstein Barr Virus)
Oral ulcers, retenitis, gastroenteritis, hepatitis, pneumonitisHHV-5 (Cyto-Megalo-Virus)
Roseola infantum, no oral findingsHHV-6 & HHV-7
Kaposi sarcoma, Castleman diseaseHHV-8
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