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Oral Inflamm., Infx, & Cancers

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cdunbar4's version from 2016-10-26 16:30

Gingivitis

Question Answer
Caused by: neglected oral hygiene, malocclusion (teeth misalignment) and what others?missing or irregular teeth, faulty dentistry, eating of soft rather than fibrous foods.
Manifestationsinflamed gingivae & interdental papillae; bleeding while brushing teeth; pus; abscess with peridontitis
treatmentprevention through health teaching, dental care, gingival massage, professional cleaning of teeth, fibrous foods, conscientious brushing habits with flossing
Patients more susceptible to oral infections?acquired immunodeficiency and pt. receiving chemo.
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Vincent's Infection

Question Answer
Vincent's infection; aka "trench mouth"acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis
Etiology (microorganisms)fusiform bacteria; Vincent spirochetes
Etiology (lifestyle)predisposing factors of stress, excessive fatigue, poor oral hygiene, nutritional deficiencies (B & C)
Clinical Manifestationspainful, bleeding gingivae; eroding, necrotic lesions of papilla; ulcers; ↑ saliva w/ metallic taste; anorexia, fever, malaise
Treatmentrest; no smoking/ETOH; soft nutritious diet, ↑ oral hygiene; topical antibiotics; irrigations
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Oral Candidas

Question Answer
Oral candidas, akamoniliasis or thrush
Etiology (mircroorganism)candida albicans
Etiology (medications)prolonged high-dose antibiotics or corticosteroid therapy
Clinical manispearly, bluish-white "milk-curd" lesions on mucosa of mouth & larynx; sore mouth
TreatmentNystatin or amphotericin B as oral suspension or bucal tablets; good oral hygiene
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Herpes Simplex

Question Answer
herpes simplex akacold sore, fever blister
Etiology herpes simplex virus, type I or II
Etiology (lifestyle)URI, excessive exposure to sunlight, food allergies, emotional tension, onset of menustration
Clinical Manifestationslip lesions, mouth lesions, vesicle formation (single or clustered); shallow, painful ulcers
treatmentcomphor, corticosteroid cream, mild antiseptic mouthwash, lidocaine; removal or control of predisposing factors; antiviral agents
specific antiviral drugs used for treatmentacyclovir (Zovirax); penciclovir (Denavirl)
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-itis

Question Answer
aphthous stomatitscankor sore
parotitisinflammation of parotid gland, surgical mumps
stomatitis inflammation of mouth
stomatitis etiologytrauma; pathogens; irritants; renal, liver, hematologic diseases; SE of chemo
aphthous stomatitis etiologyrecurrent & chronic form of infx, secondary to systemic disease, trauma, stress or unk causes
parotiits etiologystaph, occasionally strep; debilitation & dehydration with poor oral hygiene; NPO status for long time
aphthous stomatitis manisulcers of mouth & lips (cause extreme pain); ulcers surrounded by erythematous base
parotitis manispain in gland area & ear; no saliva; purulent exudate from gland; erythema, ulcers
stomatitis manisexcessive salivation, halitosis, sore mouth
aphthous stomatitis treatmentcorticosteroids (topical or systemic); tetracycline oral suspension
parotitis treatmentantibiotics, mouthwashes, warm compresses; preventive measures (gum, hard candy, ↑ fluid intake)
stomatitis treatmentremoval or tx of cause, oral hygiene with soothing solutions, topical meds; soft, bland diet
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Oral Cancer

Question Answer
two types of oral cancersoral cavity cancer and oropharyngeal cancer
Term used for cancers of oral cavityHNSCC Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma
Etiologytobacco, ETOH, sun, poor oral hygiene
Manisleukoplakia, erythroplakia, ulcerations, sore that bleeds and doesn't heal & a rough area (felt with the tongue)
Diagnosticstoluidine blue test (although doesn't rule out possible malignancy)
Collaborative Care (most effective treatment)surgery (partial mandiblectomy, hemiglossectomy, glossectomy)
CC (nonsurgical)chemo and radiation usually used together
CC (nutritional)PEG may be inserted pre-radiation treatment; parenteral fluids 1st 24-48 hrs of radical neck surgeries
Nursing implementation↓ reoccurrence of oral cancers by eliminating or decreasing risk factors (ETOH, smoking, hygiene, early detection)
Patient teaching for early detectionreport unexplained pain or soreness of the mouth, unusual bleeding, dysphagia, sore throat, voice changes, swelling or lump in neck, ulcers.
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