Oral Communication

vivixosa's version from 2016-08-16 13:18

Section 1

Question Answer
Taking down notesis one key to academic success
Record, Questions, Recite, Reflect & Reviewparts of Cornell Note Taking System
CommunicationProcess of passing information from source to receiver
CommunicationTransmit info and attitudes from one person to another
CommunicationProcess of meaningful interaction among human beings
2 way process, circular flow, continuous process, verbal & non-verbal, & sharing info and understandingFeatures of Communication
Sender, Message, Channels, Receiver, Feedback, NoiseElements of Communication
SenderSends the message
MessageKey idea that the sender wants to communicate
Channelsways of message being conveyed
Verbal & Non-verbal2 types of channel
Receiver/DecoderFor whom the message is intended
FeedbackComponent of communication process
NoiseBarrier that affects the sending/receiving message
Linear, Interactive and Transactional3 basic Communication Models
LinearOne way process
LinearNo feedback from receiver
InteractiveWith feedback
TransactionalContinuous Process
Aristotle's modelMainly focuses on speaker and speech
Speaker, Speech, Occasion, Audience and Effect5 primary elements of Aristotle's Model
Lasswell's modelStates that a convenient way to describe an act of communication is to answer questions
Who?, Says What?, In which Channel?, To Whom? & With what Effect?Questions in Lasswell's Model
Schramm's ModelPostulated by William Schramm in 1954
Schramm's Modelalso known as "Encode-Decode Model of Communication"
Shannon-weaver modelAlso known as "Mathematical Theory of Communication"
Shannon-weaver modelSpecifically designed to develop the effective communication between sender and receiver
Dance's model/Helical modelShow's communication as a dynamic & non-linear process
Dance's model/Helical modelThe process starts slowly with communicators sharing small information and gradually develops
Dance's model/Helical modelLargely dependent on its past
Wood's Symbolic Interaction ModelIn which communicators construct personal meaning though their symbol interactions
Wood's Symbolic Interaction ModelEmphasizes temporal dimension of communication
Berlo's SMCR ModelSource, Message, Channel, Receiver
Berlo's SMCR ModelAlmost complete as a model but the visual presentation suggests linearity from source to receiver
White's ModelCyclical and sequential relationship among 8 elements
TSETRDFM8 Elements in White's model
Aristotelian, Lasswell & Berlo's SMCRExamples of Linear Communication Model
Shannon-Weaver Examples of Interactive Communication Model
Schramm, Dance, Wood & WhiteExamples of Transactional Communication Model

Section 2

Question Answer
Verbal CommunicationAn interaction in which words are used to relay message
AppropriatenessLanguage used should be appropriate to the environment/occasion
BrevitySimple yet precise & powerful words are found to be more credible
ClarityClearly state the message and express ideas and feelings
EthicsWords should be carefully chosen in consideration of gender, roles, status, ethnicity & preferences
VividnessCreatively describe things or feelings, add color & space
Non-Verbal CommunicationInteraction where behavior is used to convey and represent meanings

Section 3

Question Answer
Use of Jargon, Emotional Barrier, Lack of Confidence, Noisy Environment, Signal interception5 Barriers of Communication
CompletenessInclude everything that the receiver needs to hear for him to respond
ConcisenessMaking the statement direct/straight to the point
ConsiderationShould consider relevant info about receiver
ConcretenessSupport by fatcs, figures and real life examples
CourtesyBy respecting the culture, values and belief of his receiver
ClearnessImplies the use of simple and specific words to express ideas, focus on one objective
CorrectnessGrammar eliminates negative impact on the audience and increase the credibility of the message

Section 4

Question Answer
Intercultural CommunicationHappens when individuals interact, negotiate and create meanings while bringing in their varied cultural backgrounds
Intercultural CommunicationCommunication among people from different nationalities
Divergent thinkingThinking creatively
Systems-level thinkingThinking how each one in a system or organization influences each other
DenialDoes not recognize cultural differences
DefenseStarts to recognize diff cultures and is intimidated by them
DefenseSuperior view of own or unjustified regard
MinimizationIndividuals see cultural differences then bank universality
AcceptanceBegins to appreciate cultural differences
AdaptationVery open to the world views when accepting new perspectives
IntegrationIndividuals start to go beyond their own cultures
Gender, religion, social status and age(4) Must be taken in consideration
Reflectiveness/mindfulness, open-mindedness, sensitivity, adaptability, politeness, flexibility, ability to engage in divergent & systems-level thinkingCharacteristics of competent intercultural communicators
Denigration, Superiority & ReversalRecognition of cultural differences
DenigrationBelittling or actively discriminating against another person
SuperiorityExtreme ethnocentrism to the point where one looks down on another
Reversalchanging side or evaluating one's own culture as inferior to another
EthnorelativeChanging in one's view of difference
EthnorelativeRecognize diff, cultural differences
Acceptance, Adaption and IntegrationEthnorelative stages

Section 5

Question Answer
DenialStage 1
DefenseStage 2
MinimizationStage 3
AcceptanceStage 4
AdaptationStage 5
IntegrationStage 6

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