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ORAL COMM LONG TEST

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baejuhyeoned's version from 2016-10-17 19:00

Section 1

Question Answer
Biographical, Categorical, Causal, Chronological, Comparison/Contrast, Problem-Solution6 Speech Writing Patterns
BiographicalPresents descriptions of your life or of a person, famous or not
Categorical/TopicalPresents related categories supporting the topic
CausalPresents cause-effect relationships
ChronologicalPresents idea in time order
Comparison/ContrastPresents comparison/contrast of two or three points
Problem-solutionPresents an unidentified problem, its causes, and recommended solutions
Outlineis the hierarchical list that shows the relationship of your ideas
2/3 of your speech is finishedExperts in public speaking state that once your outline is ready, __________
A good outlinehelps you see that all the ideas are in line with your main idea or message
Table format & List Format2 Formats of Outline Suggested
Introduction, Body, Conclusion3 Elements of an Outline
Introductionis the foundation of your speech.
To get attention of audience & Present the main idea of speechGoal of introduction
Use real life experience, Use practical examples, Start with a strong/familiar quote, Use facts & statistics & Tell a personal story5 Strategies of making an introduction
Body of the speechProvides explanations, examples or any details that can help you deliver your purpose and explain main idea of speech
Present real life examples, Show statistics, Present comparison & Share ideas from experts4 Strategies of making the body of the speech
Conclusionrestates the main idea of your speech. It provides a summary, emphasizes the message, and calls for action.
Aims to leave the audience with a memorable statementGoal of conclusion
Begin your conclusion with a restatement of your message, Use positive examples, encouraging words, or memorable lines from songs/stories & Ask a question3 Strategies of making a conclusion
Editing/Revising & Rehearsing2 parts of After Writing
Editing/Revisinginvolves correcting errors in mechanics, such as grammar, punctuation, capitalization, unity, coherence, and others.
Rehearsinggives you an opportunity to identify what works and what does not work for you and for your target audience.
Reading your speech aloud, recording for your own analysis or for your peers to give feedbackStrategies of Rehearsing
(1) Keep your words short and simple. (2) Avoid jargon, acronyms, or technical words. (3) Make your speech more personal. Use pronoun "I" but don't overuse it. (4) Use active verbs and contractions. (5) Be sensitive of your audience. (6) Use metaphors and other figures of speech to convey your point. (7) Manage your time wellGuidelines in Speech Writing
memorize

Section 2

Question Answer
6 Power Principles for Speech Editing Created by Andrew Dlugan in 2013
Edit for FOCUS, Edit for CLARITY, Edit for CONCISION, Edit for CONTINUITY, Edit for VARIETY & Edit for IMPACT & BEAUTY6 Power Principles for Speech Editing
Edit for FOCUSEnsure that everything you have written, from introduction to conclusion, is related to your central message.
Edit for FOCUS“So, what’s the point? What’s the message of the speech?”
Edit for CLARITYMake all ideas in your speech clear by arranging them in logical order (e.g., main idea first then supporting details, or supporting details first then main idea).
Edit for CLARITY“I don’t understand the message because the examples or supporting details were confusing.”
Edit for CONCISIONKeep your speech short, simple, and clear by eliminating unrelated stories and sentences and by using simple words.
Edit for CONCISION“The speech was all over the place; the speaker kept talking endlessly as if no one was listening to him/her.”
Edit for CONTINUITYKeep the flow of your presentation smooth by adding transition words and phrases.
Edit for CONTINUITY“The speech was too difficult to follow; I was lost in the middle.”
Edit for VARIETYAdd spice to your speech by shifting tone and style from formal to conversational and vice-versa, moving around the stage, or adding humor.
Edit for VARIETY“I didn’t enjoy the speech because it was boring.”
Edit for IMPACT & BEAUTYMake your speech memorable by using these strategies: surprise the audience, use vivid descriptive images, write well-crafted and memorable lines, and use figures of speech.
Edit for IMPACT & BEAUTY“There’s nothing really special about the speech.”
memorize

Section 3

Question Answer
The Speech Writing Processeffective speech follows certain steps or processes
The Speech Writing Processprocess for writing is recursive meaning you have the opportunity to repeat a writing procedure indefinitely
Audience analysis, Purpose for writing and delivering the speech, Selecting a Topic, Narrowing down a topic, Gathering DataComponents of the Speech Writing Process
Audience analysisentails looking into the profile of your target audience
Audience analysisdone so you can tailor-fit your speech content and delivery to your audience
Demography, Situation, PsychologyAudience Analysis should include:
Demographyage range, male-female ratio, educational background and affiliations or degree program taken, nationality, economic status, academic or corporate designations
Situationtime, venue, occasion, and size
Psychologyvalues, beliefs, attitudes, preferences, cultural and racial ideologies, and needs
To inform, to entertain, or to persuadeThree purposes of writing a speech
Informative speechprovides the audience with a clear understanding of the concept or idea presented by the speaker.
Entertainment speechprovides the audience with amusement.
Persuasive Speechprovides the audience with well-argued ideas that can influence their own beliefs and decisions.
Selecting a Topicfocal point of your speech
Selecting a Topiccan be determined once you have decided on your purpose.
Using personal experiences, discussing family members or friends, Free writing, Listing, Asking questions, Semantic webbingstrategies used in selecting a topic
Data gatheringis the stage where you collect ideas, information, sources, and references relevant or related to your specific topic
Data gatheringcan be done by visiting the library, browsing the web, observing a certain phenomenon or event related to your topic, or conducting an interview or survey
memorize

Section 4

Question Answer
Stephen Lucas (2011)Said that a good delivery means you are capable and able to present your message in a clear, coherent & interesting way.
Stephen Lucas (2011)Author of 'The Art of Public Speaking'
Informative SpeechSpeech that provides audience with clear understanding of a concept or idea
Entertainment SpeechSpeech that amuses the audience
Persuasive SpeechSpeech that seeks to provide the audience with favorable or acceptable ideas that can influence their own ideas & decisions
Extemporaneous SpeechSpeaking with limited preparation that is guided by notes or outlines
Extemporaneous SpeechMost popular type of speech
Extemporaneous SpeechDelivered conversationally
Helps you look confident & Engages the audienceAdvantages of Extemporaneous Speech
May not have enough time to prepare, organize & rehearseDisadvantages of Extemporaneous Speech
Impromptu SpeechSpeaking without advanced preparation
Impromptu SpeechUnrehearsed Speech
Manuscript SpeechReading aloud a written message
Exact repetition of the written words & Guided speechAdvantages of Manuscript Speech
Boring and uninteresting speech, Lacks audience rapportDisadvantages of Manuscript Speech
Memorized SpeechReciting a written message word-for-word from memory
memorize

Section 5

Question Answer
Manuscript SpeechReading aloud a written message
Public figure, media personalities, spokesperson to government/private organizationPeople who use manuscript speeches
Might be tempted to skip practicing speech, Might be glued to the speech, Might not have enough time3 Problems of manuscript Speech
Practice & Adapt2 Strategies of Manuscript Speech
Prepare, Mark, Practice, Practice more, Concentrate, Act it out6 Tips of Manuscript Speech
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Section 6

Question Answer
Heading, Salutation, Body, Closing, SignatureParts of a letter
Headingusually includes the address and date at the top of the letter
Bodyis the heart of the letter.
Body where you write your message.
Salutation/Greetingis the opening like Dear Mom followed by a comma for a friendly letter or a colon for a business letter.
Be courteous, Written simply & naturally, Make letter interesting, Coherent and easy to read, Review you letter5 Things to consider in Body of letter
ClosingEnding of letter
SignatureSign your name
Full block, Modified semiblock & friendly3 Formats of letter
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Section 7

Question Answer
Memorized speechRequires you to commit the speech to memory
Memorized speechRun the risk of sounding mechanical
Short speeches for special occasions, Introduction guest, Eulogy, Tribute, Recognition/Acceptance of award, Toast during wedding/baptism/debut(6) Memorized speeches are used in:
Don't need notes, Can play gestures, facial expression and movement freely, concentrate on visual aids and props, be confident4 advantages of Memorized speech
Might forget, Might memorize mechanically, Might not focus on movement, Might be too tied in remembering the speech4 Disadvantages of Memorized Speech
Break it down, Build it up, Speak out, Identify keys, Have a break, Record and listen, Use note cards7 tips in using Memorized Speech
memorize

Section 8

Question Answer
Evaluating the content, Assessing the delivery , Giving constructive feedback3 Methods in Critiquing a Speech
(1) Decide whether the speech resonates with the target audience, (2) Evaluate the Speech’s Clarity, (3) See if the speech is convincing and educational , (4) See if the speech has personality, (5) Evaluate the closing5 Steps in Evaluating the content
(1) Listen to the speaker’s voice inflections, (2) Watch the speaker’s body language , (3) Listen for filler words, (4) See if the speech was memorized, (5) Assess how the speaker manages anxiety5 Steps in Assessing the delivery
(1) Take detailed notes during the speech, (2) Discuss your assessment of the speech’s content, (3) Give feedback on the speaker’s delivery, (4) Point out the positive, too4 Steps in Giving constructive feedback
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Section 9

Question Answer
Impromptu Speechare delivered with little or no time for preparation
Impromptu SpeechIn most instances, you are called to speak at the spur of the moment because you are expected to be knowledgeable about the subject.
Past Present Future, Point-Reason-Example, Opening-Rule of Three-ClincherStrategies in Organizing and Delivering an Impromptu Speech
Bridging, Reframing, Playing Devil’s AdvocateStrategies Addressing the Problem of the Audience Inattentiveness
Craig Harrison (2010)He made the 'Strategies Addressing the Problem of the Audience Inattentiveness'
Bridgingentails building a connection between what you do know and what you do not know
Reframingrephrasing or redefining the topic into something that you want to talk about
Reframingoccurs if you think the topic is inappropriate or it is not meant for you
Playing Devil’s Advocaterefers to you standing on the opposite side
5W & Issue, Pros vs. Cons, ConclusionsAdditional Strategies for Organizing an Impromptu Speech
Dlugan, 2011Made the 'Additional Strategies for Organizing an Impromptu Speech'
5WDiscuss the topic by talking about Who, What, When, Where, and Why aspects of the topic
Issue, Pros vs. Cons, ConclusionsDescribe the issue, discuss its advantages and then its drawbacks. End the speech with a recommendation.
(1) Smile, (2) Relax by thinking about positive things, (3) Identify your purpose, (4) Think of one big word that can serve as your main point, (5)Start outlining in your head5 Effective tips to do BEFORE the Impromptu Speech
(1) Keep composed, (2) Shake hands with the one who introduced you, (3) Establish eye contact, (4) Use appropriate transitional devices, (5) Observe appropriate and effective nonverbal cues, (6) Observe time limit6 Effective tips to do DURING the Impromptu Speech
(1) Say thank you, (2) Return to your place comfortably2 Effective tips to do AFTER the Impromptu Speech
memorize

Section 2