Optho Ck

mikenakhla's version from 2016-05-19 21:45


Question Answer
• Open angle glaucoma sx? Tx?no pain, progressive visual field loss and optic nerve changes. Treatment involves beta blockers, prostaglandins, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, laser therapy, surgery
• Immediate treatment for closed angle glaucoma?pilocarpine, oral glycerin, and acetazolamide. Definitive treatment is surgery to prevent future attacks
• Treatment for UV keratitis?eye patch for 24 hours and topical antibiotic. Can reduce pain with anticholinergic eye drop which causes paralysis of the ciliary muscle
• Cataracts in a neonate suggestsTORCH infection or galactosemia
• Drusenmacular degeneration. Yellow white deposits around macular on fundoscopy.
• Proliferative vs nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy. How do you treat each?proliferative is development of new vessels in the retina, treat with photocoagulation. Nonproliferative is called "background" retinopathy. Treated supportively with tight glucose control and follow up exams. But can treat with laser therapy when macular edema is present
• Preorbital aka preseptal vs orbital cellulitis? Treatment for each?if opthalmoplegia, proptosis, severe eye pain, or decreased acuity, it's cellulitis. Preorbital treat with clindamycin or bactrim plus amox. Orbital is vanco plus ceftriaxone usually. Orbital requires hospitalization and IV abx, the other can be treated as an outpatient
• Chalazion vs hordeolum (stye)?stye is near lid margin, other is away from it and chalazion is painless. Treat both with warm compress or steroid injection/I&D for chalazion if compress doesn't work
• How do you recognize herpes simplex keratitis?dendritic keratitis on fluorescein stain/slit lamp exam. Treat with topical antivirals (idoxuridine, trifluridine). Steroids are CONTRAINDICATED b/c they'll make it worse
• Hutchinson's sign, what is this and what kind of eye infection does it indicate?ophthalmic herpes zoster. It's nose involvement and/or medial eyelid. Treat with oral acyclovir
• Two causes of central retinal artery occlusion?emboli or temporal arteritis!
• Coexisting condition with temporal arteritis?polymyalgia rheumatica
• Central retinal artery vs retinal vein occlusion?time course is the difference. Faster loss of vision is artery, slower (over hours) for vein. No treatment for either really
• Floaters and sudden unilateral loss of visionretinal detachment. Like a curtain or veil. Immediate ophthalmologist referral for surgery
• Red reflex becomes blackcataracts
• Treatment for dry vs wet macular degeneration?dry is supportive, eg magnifying aids. Wet is exudative and treated with VEGF inhibitors or laser photocoagulation therapy in some
• Isolated CN II, IV, or VI palsy?diabetes or hypertension. Treat those . If they don't resolve within 8 weeks, or if they don’t have hypertension or diabetes, do MRI
• Strabismus is normal till when?3 months, after that refer to opthalmologist to prevent blindness (ambylopia)
• Contact lens associated infection with involvement of the cornea?keratitis, usually due to pseudomonas. Emergency. Need to treat with abx promply and remove contact on eye
• "cherry red fovea"central retinal artery occlusion.
• "curtain coming down over my eye" after flashes of light and floaters. Grey elevated retina on opthalmoscopic examretinal detachment
• Cuppingglaucoma, closed is painful, open is not and gradual
• Treatment for open angle glaucomabeta blocker eye drops

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